See artifacts embryonic demise 93 embryonic

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effects and artifacts. See artifacts embryonic demise, 93 embryonic resorption, 93 emergency ultrasound Index 339 Index
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emergency ultrasound (cont.) development of, 27 training in, 27 enhancement artifacts, 19 extended FAST exam. See eFAST exam external jugular vein cannulation, 289 extrauterine pregnancy. See first trimester ultrasound extravascular lung water (EVLW). See chest ultrasound extremity fractures in children, 244–245 FAST exam, 19 , 27–57 , 255 abnormal images, 42 cardiac evaluation, 66 comparison with CT and DPL, 27–28 detecting free fluid in trauma, 27 detection of pneumothorax, 51–56 extended FAST exam. See eFAST exam focused questions, 28 hypotension evaluation, 261 literature review, 50–51 movement of free intraperitoneal fluid, 32 new directions, 56–57 normal images, 39 objective, 27 potential cost savings, 28 role in trauma diagnosis, 27–28 sample clinical protocol, 49 training in emergency ultrasound, 27 use of ultrasound in trauma, 27 FAST exam anatomy, 28–32 free intraperitoneal fluid movement patterns, 32 hepatorenal recess, 28–29 left upper quadrant (LUQ), 29–30 Morison’s pouch, 28–29 pouch of Douglas, 30 rectovesical pouch, 30–31 right paracolic gutter, 28 right upper quadrant (RUQ), 28–29 splenorenal recess, 29–30 FAST exam technique, 32–39 cardiac view, 37 hepatorenal recess view, 33–34 LUQ view, 34–35 Morison’s pouch view, 33–35 pelvic view, 35–36 perisplenic view, 34–35 probe selection, 32 RUQ view, 33–35 scanning tips, 38–39 subxiphoid view, 37 trouble with the cardiac view, 39 trouble with the LUQ view, 39 trouble with the pelvic view, 39 trouble with the RUQ view, 38 views, 33–38 femoral nerve block, 329 first trimester terminology, 92–93 anembryonic gestation, 93 blighted ovum, 93 complete abortion, 92 embryonic demise, 93 embryonic resorption, 93 incomplete abortion, 92 inevitable abortion, 92 miscarriage, 92 missed abortion, 92 spontaneous abortion, 92 threatened abortion, 92 first trimester ultrasound, 91–112 abnormal pelvic scans, 107 anatomy, 93–94 detection of ectopic pregnancy, 106 ectopic pregnancy evaluation, 91–92 extrauterine pregnancy evaluation, 91–92 focused questions, 92 heterotopic pregnancy evaluation, 91–92 human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels, 93 literature review, 110–111 new directions, 111–112 normal images of early pregnancy, 101–105 patient presentation, 91–92 prevalence of ectopic pregnancy, 91 sample clinical protocol, 109 scanning tips, 101 technique, 94–101 terminology for first trimester events, 92–93 transabdominal scanning technique, 94–97 transvaginal scanning technique, 98–100 trouble with the transabdominal view, 101 trouble with the transvaginal view, 101 focal depth, 12 focal zone, 12 focused assessment with sonography in trauma (FAST) exam. See FAST exam foreign body identification/localization, 308 anatomy, 309 focused questions, 309 literature review, 315 pitfalls, 315 probe selection, 309 procedure, 310–314 340 Index Index
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setup, 310–311 special equipment, 310 technique, 309–315 tips, 315 Fourniers gangrene, 213 frequency and penetration, 2–3 and resolution, 2–3 and wavelength, 2 definition, 2–3 frequency range of probes, 6 fundamentals, 1–21 absorption, 4 acoustic power, 5 adjusting the image, 12–13 amplitude,
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