About ¼ are racialethnic minority 117000 some

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Differences in the quality of the work??? About ¼ are racial/ethnic minority (117,000) Some studies say that there are no differences between black and white officers in arrest and the use of force Can you think of any reasons as to why women are under-represented? How about racial/ethnic minorities? Police and education
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Higher education for police officers recommended by national commissions since 1931 –slow adoption of recommendation Today, most agencies use physical agility, personality inventories, and aptitude tests for hiring 18% OF PD’S HAVE SOME TYPE OF COLLEGE REQUIREMENT For new recruits, the larger the agencies the more training hours required— academy and field work Police officers and weapons Officers are authorized to have: The primary firearm is a semi-automatic Others are allow to carry a revolver Most require officers to wear body armor (field and patrol officers) Pepper spray, batons, Tasers/stun guns, soft projectiles, restraints Call for service: 2/3 have this as part of their regular duties ¾ of departments have enhanced 911 (THE ABILITY TO KNOW THE location of caller, etc.) Computers in the field Video in the cars Traditional approach to policing Patrol beats/zones in cars Respond to calls Assumption: police presence deters criminal behavior and makes public feel safer???? Kansas City experiment (1974) This study compared reactive patrol, proactive patrol and normal patrol. No significant differences in level of crime, Attitudes BY CITIZENS, Fear by Citizens, Response time by police, Satisfaction with police response time Hot spots Sherman & Weisburd—Minneapolis hot spots experiment Focus preventive patrol in areas called the “hot spots” of crime (questioned the outcomes of the Kansas city experiment) Focused on areas where crime is most concentrated They found that more patrol led to less crime calls and less observations of disorder in places with much more patrol Community Policing Community should play a central role in defining problems the police addressed Focus on issues BEYOND crime Order maintenance Conflict resolution Problem solving Example: The Weed and Seed Program Involves the community, law enforcement, local officials, U.S. Attorney's Office, DEA
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Law enforcement and community works together Weed out violent criminals and drug abusers Seed the community with services and resources (prevention, intervention, treatment & neighborhood restoration) Traditional Policing Approach Use probable cause before intervening with citizens Citizens are witnesses or victims Reactive/respond after the fact It’s the job of the police/it’s their work Community Policing Approach Focus on factors that are precursors to crime such as non-criminal public disorder Citizens are assistants/they will help with information Focus on smaller crimes which will prevent bigger crimes
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