13. (a)
From the politician’s view:
Year
Percent
2002
2001
2000
1999
1998
1997
15.5
15.0
14.5
14.0
13.5
13.0
12.5
12.0
Health Care as a Percent of GDP
(b)
From the health care industry view:
Year
Percent
2002
2001
2000
1999
1998
1997
24
20
16
12
8
4
0
Health Care as a Percent of GDP
Full file at

Chapter 2
Organizing and Summarizing Data
78
(c)
An unbiased view:
Year
Percent
2002
2001
2000
1999
1998
1997
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
Health Care as a Percent of GDP
14.
(a)
Someone wanting to demonstrate that roads are getting less safe would show a plot of
the number of motor vehicle deaths. This number is likely to rise each year simply
because there are more drivers on the road which increases the likelihood of a serious
accident. In addition, a misleading scale on the y-axis may be used to amplify the point.
Year
Deaths (thousands)
2002
2001
2000
1999
1998
44.0
43.8
43.6
43.4
43.2
43.0
Motor Vehicle Deaths
(b)
Someone wanting to demonstrate that roads are becoming safer would want to consider
the rate of motor vehicle deaths. For example, the number per 100,000 licensed drivers.
While the number of deaths may increase, the number of licensed drivers will also
likely increase. Therefore, it is possible for the rate of occurrence to decrease even
though the actual number of deaths increases. In addition, a misleading scale on the y-
axis may be used to amplify the point.
Year
Deaths per 100,000 Licensed Drivers
2002
2001
2000
1999
1998
22.4
22.3
22.2
22.1
22.0
Traffic Death Rate
Full file at

Section 2.3
Graphical Misrepresentation of Data
79
15.
(a)
Because the second graphic must be two times as large as the first graphic, the height
and width of the second graph must increase by a factor of
2
. So, if the first graphic is
1 inch by 1 inch, the second graphic should be
2
inches by
2
inches. An example of
a graph that is not misleading:
Year
Number of Students
2001
1995
Enrollment in Distance Learning
(b)
Any graphic that is misleading will not have the dimensions mentioned in part (a).
Typically, the second graphic would have a width and length that are both increased by
a factor of 2. This would make the area of the second graphic four times as large as the
area of the first graphic.
16.
(a)
Because the second graphic must be three times as large as the first graphic, the height
and width of the second graph must increase by a factor of
3
. So, if the first graphic is
1 inch by 1 inch, the second graphic should be
3
inches by
3
inches. An example of
a graphic that is not misleading:
Year
Number of Adolescents
2002
1980
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
US Adolescents Who Are Overweight
(b)
Any graphic that is misleading will not have the dimensions mentioned in part (a).
Typically, the second graphic would have a width and length that are both increased by
a factor of 3. This would make the area of the second graphic nine times as large as the
area of the first graphic.

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