13 a From the politicians view Year Percent 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 155

# 13 a from the politicians view year percent 2002 2001

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13. (a) From the politician’s view: Year Percent 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 15.5 15.0 14.5 14.0 13.5 13.0 12.5 12.0 Health Care as a Percent of GDP (b) From the health care industry view: Year Percent 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 24 20 16 12 8 4 0 Health Care as a Percent of GDP Full file at
Chapter 2 Organizing and Summarizing Data 78 (c) An unbiased view: Year Percent 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Health Care as a Percent of GDP 14. (a) Someone wanting to demonstrate that roads are getting less safe would show a plot of the number of motor vehicle deaths. This number is likely to rise each year simply because there are more drivers on the road which increases the likelihood of a serious accident. In addition, a misleading scale on the y-axis may be used to amplify the point. Year Deaths (thousands) 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 44.0 43.8 43.6 43.4 43.2 43.0 Motor Vehicle Deaths (b) Someone wanting to demonstrate that roads are becoming safer would want to consider the rate of motor vehicle deaths. For example, the number per 100,000 licensed drivers. While the number of deaths may increase, the number of licensed drivers will also likely increase. Therefore, it is possible for the rate of occurrence to decrease even though the actual number of deaths increases. In addition, a misleading scale on the y- axis may be used to amplify the point. Year Deaths per 100,000 Licensed Drivers 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 22.4 22.3 22.2 22.1 22.0 Traffic Death Rate Full file at
Section 2.3 Graphical Misrepresentation of Data 79 15. (a) Because the second graphic must be two times as large as the first graphic, the height and width of the second graph must increase by a factor of 2 . So, if the first graphic is 1 inch by 1 inch, the second graphic should be 2 inches by 2 inches. An example of a graph that is not misleading: Year Number of Students 2001 1995 Enrollment in Distance Learning (b) Any graphic that is misleading will not have the dimensions mentioned in part (a). Typically, the second graphic would have a width and length that are both increased by a factor of 2. This would make the area of the second graphic four times as large as the area of the first graphic. 16. (a) Because the second graphic must be three times as large as the first graphic, the height and width of the second graph must increase by a factor of 3 . So, if the first graphic is 1 inch by 1 inch, the second graphic should be 3 inches by 3 inches. An example of a graphic that is not misleading: Year Number of Adolescents 2002 1980 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 US Adolescents Who Are Overweight (b) Any graphic that is misleading will not have the dimensions mentioned in part (a). Typically, the second graphic would have a width and length that are both increased by a factor of 3. This would make the area of the second graphic nine times as large as the area of the first graphic.

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