Political Consolidation of the Lutheran Reformation In the 1530s German Lutherans formed regional consisto-ries, which oversaw and administered the new Protestant churches. These consistories replaced the old Catholic epis-copates. Under the leadership of Philip Melanchthon (1497-1560), educational reforms established compulsory primary education, schools for girls, a humanist revision of the school curriculum, and catechetical instruction of the laity in the new religion. The Reformation also dug in elsewhere. Introduced into Denmark by Christian II (r. 1513-1523), Lutheranism be-came the state religion under Christian III (r. 1536-1559). In Sweden, Gustavus Vasa (r. 1523-1560) confis cated church property and subjected the clergy to royal authority (1527). In politically splintered Poland, Lutherans, Calvin-ists, and others found room to practice their beliefs. The ab-sence of a central political authority made Poland a model of religious pluralism and toleration in the second half of the sixteenth century.
474 Part 4 The World in Transition, 1500 to 1850 Chronology Progress of Protestant Reformation on the Continent 1517 Luther posts ninety-five theses againstindulgences 1519 Charles I of Spain elected Holy Roman emperor (as Charles V) 1519 Luther challenges infallibility of pope and inerrancy of church councils at Leipzig Debate 1521 Papal bull excommunicates Luther for heresy 1521 Diet of Worms condemns Luthe, 1521-1522 Luther translates the New Testament into German 1524-1525 Peasants' Revolt in Germany 1529 Marburg Colloquy between Luther and Zwingli ' 1530 Diet of Augsburg fails to settle religious differences 1531 Formation of Protestant ~chmalkaldic League ., 1536 Calvin arrives in Geneva 1540 Jesuits, founded by Ignatius of Loyola, recognized as order by pope 1545-1563 Council of Trent institutes reforms and responds to the Reformation 1546 Luther dies 1547 Armies of Charles V crush Schmalkaldic League 1555 Peace of Augsburg recognizes rights of Lutherans to worship as they please Reaction against Protestants: The 11lnterim11 Emperor C harles V made abortive efforts in 1540- 1541 to enforce a compromise between Protes tants and Catholics. As these efforts failed, he crushed the Protestant Schmal-kaldic League in 154 7. The Schmalkaldic League was formed in 153 1 as a defensive league consisting of Lutheran Saxony and H esse against the Imperial army, which beseiged and occupied Wittenberg in 154 7, the year after Martin Luther's death. The emperor then established puppet rulers in Saxony and Hesse and issued as imperial law the Augsburg Interim,. an order demanding Protestants everywhere to readopt Catholic beliefs and practices . For-tunately for Protestants the Reformation was too en-trenched by 154 7 to be ~nded even by brute force. C on-fron ted by fierce Protestant res ista nce and weary from three decades of war, the emperor relented.