Political consolidation of the lutheran reformation

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Political Consolidation of the Lutheran Reformation In the 1530s German Lutherans formed regional consisto- ries, which oversaw and administered the new Protestant churches. These consistories replaced the old Catholic e pis- copates. Under the leadership of Philip Melanchthon (1497-1560), educational reforms established compulsory primary education, schools for girls, a humanist revision of the school curriculum, and catechetical instruction of the laity in the new religion. The Reformation also dug in elsewhere. Introduced into Denmark by Christian II (r. 1513-1523), Lu t heranism be- came the state religion under Christian III (r. 1536-1559). In Sweden, Gustavus Vasa (r. 1523-1560) c onfis c at e d church property and subjected the clergy to royal auth o rit y (1527). In politically splintered Poland, Lutherans, C a l vin - ists, and others found room to practice their beliefs. Th e a b- sence of a central political authority made Poland a mo d e l of religious pluralism and toleration i n the second half o f t he sixteenth century.
474 Part 4 The World in Transition, 1500 to 1850 Chronology Progress of Prot e stant Reformat i on on th e Co ntine nt 1517 Luther posts ninety-five theses againstindulgences 1519 Charles I of Spain elected Holy Roman emperor (a s Charles V) 1519 Luther challenges infallibility of pope and inerrancy of church councils at Leipzig Debate 1521 Papal bull excommunicates Luther for heresy 1521 Diet of Worms condemns Luthe , 1521 - 152 2 Luther translates the New Testament into German 1524 - 15 25 Peasants' Revolt in Germany 1529 Marburg Colloquy between Luther and Zwingli ' 1530 Diet of Augsburg fails to settle religious differences 1531 Formation of Protestant ~chmalkaldic League ., 1536 Calvin arrives in Geneva 1540 Jesuits, founded by Ignatius of Loyola, recognized as order by pope 1545 - 15 6 3 Council of Trent institutes reforms and responds to the Reformation 1546 Luther dies 1547 Armies of Charles V crush Schmalkaldic L eague 1555 Peace of Augsburg recognizes r i ghts of Lutherans to worship as they please Reaction against Protestants: The 11 lnterim 11 E m peror C h a rl es V m a d e a b o rti ve e ff o rt s i n 1540 - 1541 to en force a c ompromis e b e t wee n Prot es t a nts a nd Ca tholic s . As these effor t s fa il e d , h e c ru s h e d th e P rot es t a nt S chm a l- ka ld ic Leag u e in 154 7. T h e S chm a lk a ldic L eag u e was forme d in 15 3 1 as a d efe n s i ve l eag u e con s i s ting o f Luth eran Sax on y a nd H esse a g a in s t th e Imp e ri a l a rm y, w h ich bese i ge d a nd occupi e d W itt e nb e r g in 154 7, th e year a f ter Mar tin L uth er's d ea th . Th e e mp e ro r th e n es t a blish e d p u ppet ru le r s in Sax ony a nd H e s se a nd issu e d as imperi a l l aw t h e A u gs bur g I nt er im , . a n ord e r d e m a ndin g Pro t es t a nt s everywhere t o rea d o pt Ca tholi c b e li e f s a nd pr ac tic es . Fo r- tu nate l y for Protesta nt s th e R eforma tion was too e n- tre n che d b y 154 7 to b e ~ nd e d eve n b y brut e force. C o n - fron t ed by f ierce Protestant res i sta n ce a n d weary fr om three decades of war, t h e e m peror r e l ente d.

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