R8. International Negotiating Styles - Foster - ch 8 pp 264 - 293.pdf

All together at the door al eight odock one will

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befQre 8, they will begin to walk to the door. All together at the door, al . eight o'dock, one will ríng the bello Perhaps China provides us with the best example of major culturar 'In!ematlomil Negoliating Stytes 285 differences when it comes to time values and negotiating. Certainly a culture several thousand years old has a different perspective on the world from a culture several hundred years old. Patience is the key word when doing business in China. Business is conducted only after one is proven t~ be a trusted friend, someone with whom a long-term business relationship may be established, someone with whom guanxi (a personal connection requiring significant personal obligations) can be established. This can mean years Df negotiation before a deal is consum- mated. However, as in many other cultures, once a relationship is estab- lished, once the time and money has been invested in th~ development of such a relationship, you usuaI1y have a reliable partner on whom you can count for many years ofbusiness, provided the relationship is nur-· tu red and maintained. The emphasis here is on the long-term relatíon- ship and not on the immediate deals at hand. The effect this has on the negotiation process is important, for, while che Chinese typically seek long-range relationships based on mutual trust and cooperation, they also can be very apprehensive about doing business with Westerners. Therefore, the establishment of the essential trust takes even longer and is always at risk of breaking down. The Wes~ernermust constantly be ready to reinforce the ties oftrust ando at the same time, not falI ioto the traps that the Chinese, due to their ap- prehensiveness. often layas a "test" of the Westerner's trustworthiness. Your patience wiU be tried 'often while you are being hosted as an hon- ored guest. Information may be provided that should not be in your possession in order to see if you will use such information to your ad- vantage against them in the negotiation. False daims may be made re- garding something they have, merely in order to seem magnanimous or '~sacrificing" when they offer to give it up-in exchange, of course, f<?r an equalIy "serious" concession on your side. They may intransigently refuse to budge on a seemingly unimportant point, bUl be extremely generous on what you view to be significant issues, thereby giving the impression that chey have agreed to most of what you want, while not, of course, being able lO sign any agreement at aIl "until eve¡:ything is sorted out." They might insist on mere lettets of understanding, but then quibble over the details for the next ten years, saying that your po- sition regarding the details violares the original spirit of agreemerit. Nbne of these ploys is meant to destroy the relationship: each is repre- sentational ofan intense ambiguity on the part ofthe Chinese about do- :ing business with rhe West, and as such, each is meant to test your ,f~friendship," your trust, your worthíness, as a Westerner in their land.
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