Acoustics and perception of sound o Physical properties (acoustics) Frequency Amplitude Phase o Perception Pitch Loudness Different phases, location and sound sources Auditory scene analysis Making sense of the auditory world around us
Auditory stream = event What you are focusing on group similar sounds together Auditory grouping o Group or separate 2 auditory streams based on separation time o Gestalt principle of proximity o Easier to hear when frequency is very different Perceptual completion o Continuity: a discontinuous soft sound is heard as continuous when covered up by louder sound o Happens if the soft sound is longer and occurs before and after loud o Gestalt principle of closure and completion Auditory perception Cognitive theories in Autism Spectrum Disorder applied to music o Local vs. Global (Gestalt) processing Do not succumb to visual illusions Enhanced local processing in music Memory for pitches, sensitive to specific alterations of one note Doesn’t affect their global processing o Adolescents with ASD process global musical structures o Supports notion that musical interests and abilities are a strength for this population that should be encouraged Lecture 7 Apophenia = always trying to detect patterns in our world in random objects Attention Processes use to monitor information Flexible= shift based on demands Voluntary= chose what to pay attention to Limited =can’t process everything William James o Everyone knows what attention is Paschler o No one knows what attention is Anderson o No such thing as attention Types of attention o Selective: attending to what you want to while ignoring everything else o Sustained: maintaining focus on a particular task/stimuli o Divided: shifting attentional focus between tasks Selective o Brain processes lots of info in parallel don’t want to overload so focus on important
o Miss info if focusing on one thing (monkey business) Spotlight theory = move attention to spaces or parts of visual field THE WHERE Object-based theory= move attention to object/features THE WHAT Filter models o Only small portion of all sensory inputs are attended to o Stimuli registration perceptual analysis semantic analysis response o Early Selection (Broadbent) Don’t see or hear what you are not attending to Filter out at level of perception Dichotic listening helps support this (filter out when it comes in) Shadowing tasks = don’t remember content of unattended ear but can tell you manner of the speech (gender, sounds) Evidence that unattended info not processed for meaning o Problems Cocktail party effect hear when someone says your name while not attending Suggests some perceptual info will process for meaning even if not attended Von Wright shock words word paired with shock Then not attending to that ear, word played and heighted arousal
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- Winter '08