Homophonic: One main melody accompanied by chordsFormForm: The organization of a compositionBinary: ABTernary: ABA’Style*Style: The character of musicGeneral Classical, Rock, Jazz, Hip Hop, Folk, Various ethnic forms.Part 2: Middle Ages (450-1450)MASSConsists of prayers, psalms, cantilations, antiphons, responses, hymns and readingsMass- Eucharist- body and blood, Last SupperOrdinary- parts that stay the same (Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Santus, Agnus Dei)Early Church MusicNeumes-not exact pitchesGregorian Chant, which is monophonic, is named after Pope Gregory Church frowned(拍拍拍) on instrumental music. The vocal music reflected a spiritual rather than a physical content.Melodies and Rhythm based on textChurch modes. Melodic scalesMonophonic texture: everyone sang the same part without harmony
(CD/Track from text) (Additional You Tube sites included)Alleluia: Vidimus stellum Anonymous, monophonic (GregorianChant 1/47)Gregorian Chant, which is monophonic, is named after Pope Gregory Hildegard of Bingen 1098-1179 (Germany) O Successores (Woman1/50)Nun, mystic, woman. Wrote on poetry, music science, theologySecularGoliard Songs-11-12thcent. Latin songs of Wine, women and satire (Carmina Burana)Jongleurs (minstrels, low rung of society) epic songs of heroic deeds12-13thcent. Troubadours Singer songwriters. French Noblemen soldier/poetsMinnesinger/Meistersinger-Guilded German (union)Estampie 13thCentury (Instrumental 1/51)Dance to tune such as the estampie. Triple meter. Instrumental Dance MusicPopular Instrumentsharp, vielle, organistrum, lute, flute, recorder, shawm, oboe, bagpipeswood and brass trumpets, organOrganum (700-900) Medieval music that consists of Gregorian Chant and one more additional line. This texture is Polyphonic.Cantus Firmus:The original chant part of Organum. School of Notre Dame(1170) composers Leonin and Perotin created organum with definite time value. Called Measured RhythmNew Art Ars Nova(14thcent.)Not Chant centered. Duple meter instead of music in triple meter.Melody switches to upper voices-Treble dominatedHundred Year War and plagueSecular influenced music is becoming more popularNotation, syncopation,Machaut (1300-77) (France)Agnus Dei part of Massordinary. (Organum 1/53)Part 2 (continued): Renaissance (1450-1600)IFall of Constantinople in 1453 to Ottomans and the movement of Byzantine intellectuals to the west bringing the Glory of Greece.
Humanism:focused on human life and its accomplishments.Moveable type 1453The Reformation 95 theses 1517Money with the bankers and the strong familiesBlingII Characteristics vocal word painting: Close relationship between words and musicComposed harmonic structuresGolden Age of A cappella: unaccompanied choral music.