Three Stages of Social Movements Social movements are generally thought to evolve through three stages, assuming they survive long enough: emergence, coalescence, and routinization Emergence occurs when the social problem being addressed is first identified o In early stages of social movements, a handful of people expend great effort merely to draw attention to a particular social issue that is otherwise not in the public consciousness The second stage, coalescence , resources are mobilized (that is, concrete action is taken) around the problems outlined in the first stage o Through advocacy and education, more and more people become aware of the social problem R V CHAPTER 18: COLLECTIVE ACTION, SOCIAL MOVEMENTS, AND SOCIAL CHANGE
o They organize meetings, start donating money and begin lobbying elected officials Because the formalization of organizations requires extensive resources, including money from donors and time comments from members, some social movements simply fade away at this second stage Other social movements fade away because of a lack of support Routinization or institutionalization is the final stage of social development, in which it is institutionalized and a formal structure develops to promote the cause o It usually sets up a headquarters from which to organize its activities and coordinate its efforts Social Movement Organizations Social movement organization is a group developed to recruit new members and coordinate participation in a particular social movement, these groups also often raise money, clarify goals, and structure participation in the movement One type of social movement organization, a professional movement organization, has a full-time leadership staff dedicated to the movement and a large membership base that plays a minor role in the organization o E.g. NARAL Pro-Choice America Another type of social movement organization is called a participatory movement organization o In this organizations, unlike professional movement organizations, the rank- and-file membership is directly involved Participatory movement organizations can be further divided into two subgroups: mass protest organizations and grassroot organizations o mass protest organizations advocate for social change through protest and demonstration o a grassroots organization is a type of social movement organization that relies on high levels of community-based membership participation to promote social change. It lacks a hierarchical structure and works through existing political structures Grassroots social movements often develop around specific projects in specific places When each locality pursues its own interests, sometimes the greater good is lost in the shuffle and the results are suboptimal from the perspective of society as a whole Voluntary Organizations: Why Is America a “Land of Joiners”?
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- Spring '08
- Sociology, Social movement