Are influencing and 3 contingency theories that

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are influencing, and (3) contingency theories that examine how those in leadership roles are influenced by their surrounding environment and the subsequent performance within specific contexts. Trait Theories, 1920s–1950s Over the years, researchers have examined the importance of a range of personality traits in predicting leadership success, although research on critical traits reached its heyday during the last century and has since declined in use and is more likely currently to be used in conjunction with other models of leadership. Trait researchers have had only limited success in connecting personality to performance despite the fact that research has evaluated the role of more than 40 different individual traits and personality characteristics (Landy & Conte, 2004). Robbins and Judge (2010) argue that the extant literature indicates that extraversion is the most common trait of successful leaders; however, as they speculate, extraverted individuals may be more likely to find themselves in leadership roles and to be involved in the types of activities necessary to make those in leadership roles successful. In other words, the trait itself may be less important than the activities that extraverted leaders are likely to choose and the behaviors that a person with that trait is likely to use when on the job (Judge, Bono, & Locke, 2000). Gender, along with other demographic traits, has also been studied extensively for its connection to leadership and performance as a leader. Gender is significantly associated with women’s more limited mobility into health care leadership roles (Lantz, 2008) and lower incomes within those roles (Bradley, White, Anderson, Mattocks, & Pistell, 2000; Dey & Hill, 2007; Suter & Miller, 1973). This leads to the question of whether women exhibit different leadership styles and whether women’s styles may be less effective, and consequently serve as a barrier to their achieving higher leadership within health organizations. Contrary to such expectations, women have very effective leadership styles. Some studies have found that women are more likely to use a transformational style of leadership that encourages intellectual stimulation of subordinates and that has been linked to higher performance in leadership roles (Eagly & Carli, 2007) Behavioral Theories, 1960s–1970s Leadership theories subsequently evolved into a much stronger focus on the behaviors that those in leadership roles both use consistently across situations and on the ways in which those behaviors can be taught to future leaders. A behavioral approach to leadership emphasizes the actions that the person in the leadership role takes on the job; these are readily observable by another party as well as teachable through both education and on-the-job training. Furthermore, behaviors can be more easily connected to the roles that leaders take within organizations. Some of the earliest studies to map leadership behaviors, coming from Ohio State University and the University of Michigan in the late 1940s, identified several

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