A revitalization of fundamental christianity took

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2.A revitalization of fundamental Christianity took place after World War I. a.Kierkegaard was rediscovered; he had criticized the worldliness of the church and stressed commitment to a remote and majestic God. b.Barth stressed the imperfect and sinful nature of man and the need to accept God's truth through trust, not reason. c.Catholic existential theologians, such as Marcel, found new hope in religion by emphasizing the need for its hope and piety in a broken world.D.The new physics
1.Prior to the 1920s, science was one of the main supports of Western society's optimistic and rational worldview. 2.The challenge to Newtonian physics by scientists such as Planck and Einstein undermined belief in constant natural laws.
93.The 1920s were the "heroic age of physics."
1.Prior to Freud, it was assumed that the conscious mind processed experiences in a rational and logical way. 2.According to Freud, human behavior is basically irrational. a.The key to understanding the mind is the irrational unconscious (the id), which is driven by sexual, aggressive, and pleasure seeking desires. b.Behavior is a compromise between the needs of the id and the rationalizing conscious (the ego), which mediates what a person can do, and ingrained moral values (the superego), which tell what a person should do.3.Instinctual drives can easily overwhelm the control mechanisms; yet rational thinking and traditional moral values can cripple people with guilt and neuroses. 4.Many interpreted Freudian thought as an encouragement of an uninhibited sex life.F.Twentieth century literature 1.The postwar moods of pessimism, relativism, and alienation influenced novelists. 2.Literature focused on the complexity and irrationality of the human mind. 3.Writers such as Proust embraced psychological relativity--the attempt to understand oneself by looking at one's past. 4.Novelists such as Woolf, Faulkner, and Joyce adopted the stream of consciousness technique, in which ideas and emotions from different time periods bubble up randomly. 5.Some literature, such as that of Spengler, Kafka, and Orwell, was anti-utopia--it predicted a future of doom.II.Modern art and music A."Modernism" in art and music meant constant experimentation and a search for new forms of expression.

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