Eg poliomyelitis bone tuberculosis etc and

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(e.g., poliomyelitis, bone tuberculosis, etc.), and impairments from other causes (e.g., cerebral palsy, amputations, and fractures or burns that cause contractures). Other health impairments means having limited strength, vitality, or alertness, including a heightened alertness to environmental stimuli, that results in limited alertness with respect to the education environment that i. is due to chronic or acute health problems such as asthma, attention deficit disorder, ADHD, diabetes, epilepsy, hemophilia, lead poisoning, leukemia, rheumatic fever, a heart condition, hemophilia, lead poisoning, leukemia, nephritis, rheumatic fever, sickle cell anemia, and Tourette syndrome; and ii. Adversely affects a child’s educational performance Traumatic brain injury means an acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects educational performance. The term applies to open or closed head injuries resulting in impairments in one or more areas, such as cognition; language; memory; attention; reasoning; abstract thinking; judgment; problem-solving; sensory, perceptual, and motor abilities; psychosocial behavior; physical functions; information processing; and speech. The term does not apply to brain injuries that are congenital or degenerative, or to brain injuries induced by birth trauma. Brief History of the Field Early history Many cultures did not value individuals who were viewed as being incapable of contributing to group survival Babies were often abandoned to die. Individuals who later developed injury or illness forced to leave the group Example: Trying to cure epilepsy by cutting a hole through the skull Middle Ages Religious influences resulted in more humane care View as “ children of god ” and received protection from the Church Some disabilities were perceived as possessed by evil spirits 1800s Physicians and researchers showed an increased interest in physical disabilities 1860s: First US institutions was opened for individuals with physical disabilities, in the for of Industrial School for Crippled and Deformed Children), Boston
First U.S. institution for children with physical disabilities (Industrial School for Crippled and Deformed Children) Originally planned for treatment and training, Over the years, many institutions degenerated into providing only into a custodial care facility that segregate individuals with disabilities from society Early 1900s Emergence of public education for “crippled children” Beattie v. State Board of Education (1919) stated that students with physical disabilities could be excluded from school because they produced a “depressing and nauseating effect” on other students! Prevalence School-age children receiving special education by disability during the 2008-2009 school year: Orthopedic impairments (62,371 children) Traumatic brain injury (24,866 children) Other health impairments (648,398 children) Multiple disabilities (124,073 children) Deaf-blindness (1,745 children) Etiology Etiology of physical and health disabilities vary

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