Midterm 2 PSYC 213 Defining language A shared symbolic system for communication

Midterm 2 psyc 213 defining language a shared

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Midterm 2 PSYC 213
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Defining language A shared symbolic system for communication Symbolic Shared Functions to communicate There are units that reference or symbolize something else. It is common among a group of people. Translates thoughts. Language and the brain Our brains are generally left lateralized for language. Particular left hemisphere regions are specialized for particular language functions. But some aspects of language are supported by the right hemisphere… - Prosody (intonation, tone, stress) - Mood and attitude Midterm 2 PSYC 213
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- Is this a question? Midterm 2 PSYC 213
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Early work on language Wilhelm Wundt, credited with first work on psychology of language : studied the relationship between experience and the words used to describe it. Tree diagrams Describe the process from one level at which a number of relationships are present to another level at which those levels are ordered serially. Noam Chomksy 1. Language is innate : children learn language quickly and easily 2. Language needs to be understood by studying the structure of grammar (syntax) Midterm 2 PSYC 213
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Chomsky : Transformational Grammar From a finite set of rules, the grammar is able to generate an infinite number of sentences. Finite state grammar, however, could not produce all grammatical utterances of a natural language : they are too simple to capture the complexities of L. Phrase Structure Rules Definition : rules describing the way symbols can be rewritten as other symbols. E.g. 1. Sentence (S) Noun Phrase (NP) + Verb Phrase (VP) 2. Noun Phrase (NP) Article ( art ) + Noun (N) Grammatical transformations Definition : rules operating on entire strings of symbols to convert them to new strings. E.g. Passive transformation … FROM : My dog eat the carrot. TO : The carrot was eaten by my dog. Midterm 2 PSYC 213
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Chomsky : Competence and Performance o Competence : the basis on which a person is able to comprehend an use a language. o Performance : determined by the competence of the speaker, but also by memory factors. Indeed, to make long grammatical sentences, the speaker needs to remember the structure and the components of the sentence he is dictating. *Performance might not reflect the competence of the speaker. For example, children or second-language speakers have far more competence than their performance would suggest. Chomsky : Deep and Surface Structure Deep structure : carries meaning of the sentence Surface structure : derived from the deep structure, carries the words and syntax of the sentence. Midterm 2 PSYC 213
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Broca’s aphasia Damage to the Left inferior frontal gyrus. First patient to have it was called Tan, because he could only speak one syllable « tan ». Wernicke’s aphasia Also called receptive or fluent aphasia .Damage to the superior temporal lobe at the boundary between temporal and parietal lobe. Symptoms Troubles understanding or comprehending speech Produces random but fluent speech (a steady stream of words) A lot of non-words or invented words Unaware of their deficit Midterm 2 PSYC 213
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Paraphasia Verbal : substitutes a word with something semantically related - Shares meaning with intended word - Swapping term brother with sister Phonemic : substitute or add speech sounds (also called literal) - Shares sounds with intended word -
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