4 obligatory mutualist species can be limited by the

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4. Obligatory mutualist species can be limited by the flowering season of plants. If pollinators are long-lived (e.g. bats, hummingbirds), they will be generalists. B. Seed dispersal is also fairly common. For animals that disperse seeds, fruit is the reward e.g. slides fruit bats. Mostly vertebrates that do this, and they need food the year round so these vertebrates can’t specialize. They are generalists, as in vertebrates of #A4 above.
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V. Another kind is defensive mutualism. A. Def -- species receive food or shelter from the mutualist partner in return for defending the latter against herbivores, predators or parasites. B. Example: ants and bull’s horn acacia plants studied by Janzen (“father of tropical ecology”). Thorny acacia stems are inhabited by colonies of ants specialized to live only in acacia. Protein-rich areas on leaf tips are used by the ants. Nectaries (plant structures that produce nectar) nourish ants. slide Fig. 14.16 from text The ants eat herbivores. When Janzen removed ants, the acacias had shoots that were only one-tenth as large and had fewer leaves. The plants also survived better. slide Fig. 14.17 from text
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