Women in unpaid work self employment and

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women in unpaid work, self-employment, and entrepreneurship-Both men and women tend to move out of agriculture into nonagricultural activities as countries grow richer-Economic development changes the nature of segregation
-Gender differences in access to economic opportunities, and the resulting segregation in employment, are the product of households, markets, and institutions and their interactions-Women work more than men once all productive (housework, care, and market) activities are taken into account-Women bear the brunt of housework and care while men are mostly responsible for market work-Gender differences in time use patterns are primarily driven by family formation-Women’s weaker labor market attachment and less control over their working lifetime translates into greater economic insecurity, less economic independence, and lower access to pensions and other safety nets-Traditional views and values about women’s participation in market work are associated with lower female employment (and higher gender wage gaps)the world over-Female farmers and entrepreneurs have less access to land and credit than their male counterparts-Businesses managed by women are less likely to receive a loan than firms managed by men-Female-headed households are less likely to own and operate land than male-headed households-Gender differences in access to land and credit affect the relative ability of female and male farmers and entrepreneurs to invest, operate to scale, and benefit from new economic opportunities-Access to productive inputs and markets is lower among female-headed households than among male-headed households-Gender differences in access to land and credit also reduce the capacity of female farmers to start a business, invest, and grow, relative to their male counterparts-Difficulties in accessing financing are among the main obstacles for female entrepreneurs-to-be-Gender differences can be mitigated through policy reform-Market failures: occur when information is lacking or when some participants have more information than others-Public sector employment growth in developing countries has often been the main or even the only opportunity for formal wage employment for women-The failure to account for gender difference in the sphere of influence of a particular institution lead to further gender inequality-Three main factors contribute to gender segregation in access to economic opportunities among farmers, entrepreneurs, and wage workers:1.Gender differences in time use (primarily stemming from differences in care responsibilities)2.Gender differences in access to productive inputs (particularly land and credit)3.Gender-differentiated impacts of market and institutional failures
-Mutually reinforcing market and institutional constraints are the main reasonwhy women appear to be in a productivity trapoMarkets: differential access to labour/credit/land markets, and networksoInformal institutions: social norms on care/market worko

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