4125 planning with control knowledge the last method

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4.1.2.5. Planning with control knowledge The last method used in composition planning is planning with control knowledge which is a domain-specific planning. The planning in this type is performed based on specific rules determined by the problem domain. The first planning with control method is the Hierarchical Task Network (HTN) [24]. This method provides a hierarchal abstraction by decomposing the services into tasks then continually decomposing into smaller subtasks until an initial task (initial state s 0 say) is reached. The second method is planning with model checking (PMC); it is based on verification techniques. Usually, the finite state model is used with PMC method. PBM constructs a composition plan by verifying whether the goal formula is true in a specific model. The main feature in PMC is that it supports planning with uncertainty to manage nondeterminism and partial observability situations. The study in [25] investigates the concept of applying PMC to provide an automated plan for semantic web agents. They introduced four plans based on uncertainty as follow: Strong plans to ensure reaching the goal; weak plans which have a certain possibility to reach the goal; Strong cyclic plans which ensure reaching the goal when eliminating loops; Conformant plans which are used when there is no observation at the run time. They also use the non-deterministic state transition for model Semantic Web domain. In general, the two primary methods in composition planning have been extensively addressed by researchers and each method has its properties and limitations. According to [12] we can list the differences between the two main methods as follow: The workflow-based method is a semi-automated with the need for specific developer implementation at some points while AI Planning could be fully automated. The workflow-based method requires extensive domain knowledge. The next table lists the main advantages and disadvantages of the different planning methods discussed earlier:
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International Journal on Web Service Computing (IJWSC), Vol.7, No.1, March 2016 8 Table 1: Planning Methods Comparision Planning method Advantage Disadvantage Static High degree of control. Can’t re -plan when service failure. Can’t meet the non- functional requirement. Time-consuming. Error prone. AI planning based Planning with control High degree of control. Not reusable (Domain specific) Planning as satisfiability Suitable for complex goals Need extra reasoning analysis. Graph-based Planning Graphs allow easy understanding of plans which speed up the development process. High storage space. Logic-based planning Well representing of nondeterministic domains. Improve control with constraints. Can’t plan complex goals.
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  • Spring '16
  • Sameh
  • International Journal, Web Services, Service-oriented architecture, semantic web services

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