Participants in this study were relatively well educated with 77% having some level of postsecondary education and training. More than half of the participants were married or in a significant long-term relationship (56%). With regard to employment, 45% worked either full-time or part-time, 46%% were retired or not seeking employment, 9% were seeking employment. The mean duration since injury onset was 17.33 years (SD = 11.94). The proportion of participants who reported having quadriplegia/tetraplegia was 44% (19% with a complete lesion, 25% with an incomplete lesion).MeasuresParticipants completed seven empirically validated
instruments with strong psychometric properties assessing thepredictor and outcome variables described in the following sections.Spiritual Health Inventory (SHI). The SHI was developed by Veach and Chappel (1992) to assess perceptions of spirituality. It is composed of 18 items and three subscales: (a) Spiritual Experience, (b) Spiritual Locus of Control, and (c) Spiritual Well-Being. Only the 9-item Spiritual Well-Being subscale was used for the purpose of this study (e.g., "I have an internal experience of being accepted for who I am," "Life has a purpose," and "1 believe my life has meaning"). Each item is rated on a 5-point Likert-type rating scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree) with higher scores reflecting a greater perception of spiritual well-being. The internal consistency reliability estimates (Cronbach's alpha) for the Spiritual Well-Being subscale was reported to be .72 (Veach & Chappel, 1992). Support for the validity of the SHI is based on positive correlations with measures of physical and psychological health (Veach & Chappel, 1992). Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the SpiritualWell-Being subscale in the present study was computed to be .89.Rand Short-Form 36-General Health Scale. The SF36 is a generic health-related quality of life measure with 36 items and eight subscales: (a) Physical Function-10 items, (b) Role Limitations due to Physical Health-4 items, (c) Role
Limitations due to Emotional Problems-3 items, (d) Energy/ Fatigue-4 items, (e) Emotional Well-being-5 items, (f) Social Functioning-2 items, (g) Pain-2 items, and (h) General Health-5 items. The two summary measures of the SF-36 are referred to as Physical Component Summary and Mental Component Summary. In this study, only the general health subscale comprised of five items was used to assess the general health status of the participants (i.e., "In general, would you say your health is...," "I seem to get sick a little easier than other people," "I am as healthy as anybody I know," "I expect my health to get worse," and "My health is excellent"). Each item is rated on a 5-point Likert-type scale and then rescaled to a 0-100 point scale with higher average score reflecting higher level of general health. The internal consistency reliability estimates (Cronbach's alpha) was reported to be .78 (Ware & Sherbourne, 1992). Cronbach's alpha coefficient in the present study was computed to be .81.