Frequently recurred epidemic every generation th century disrupted

Frequently recurred epidemic every generation th

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Frequently recurred , epidemic every generation between 14-18th century, disrupted population Affected economic life\religion\popular culture Created a new piety\cults of plague saints\passion plays Sermons\religious pamphlets over theodicy, justify god's ways towards man Question a just and loving God punishing innocents and children Plague also led to some questioning a good God existing at all, would not indiscriminately killed Not atheism but rather a mute despair Had a psychological impact on human beings to their mortality and their God Impact on literature and culture Genre of plague literature (Defoe, Boccaccio, Camus, Manzoni) created Affected European painting and architecture (most churches dedicated to redeemer\plague saints) Sculpture, rise of plague columns in Vienna\Austria In modern times: Seventh Seal by Bergman , impact intellectually on the medical paradigm of disease, tested humoral framework that was in existence Girolamo Francastoro develops theory of contagonism as a response to holes in Hippocrates's theory (vast numbers of people have same humoral imbalance at precisely the same time) Francastoro eliminated mediation of humors, disease caused by a poisonous chemical but did not understand how it was transmitted Plague caused by a chemical not by a living entity Three Western Pandemics Three pandemics in the West o Outbreak= small surge in morbidity and mortality in a given area Influenza in New Haven o Epidemic = bigger surge over a larger area o Pandemic= epidemic that goes transnational, hits internationally \ continents\global
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Three pandemics of plague, each had a subset\series of recurring visitations that lasted for centuries Plague was also seasonal, epidemic began in spring\summer, faded away in winter Hot and wet months favorable to fleas and thus the plague, needed warmth\humidity for eggs to hatch Inactive in cold\dry climate First pandemic lasted for two centuries after 541 AD, called plague of Justinian o First appearance of bubonic plague as a player in world history, hit Africa\Asia\Europe Killed around 100 million people but poor records lead some to question of it was even bubonic plague at all (may have been another disease) Probably was bubonic plague according to most recent studies Second pandemic was from 1330s (in Middle East) to 1830s o 5 centuries of plague, began with Black Death, Erupted in Central Asia in 1330s, arrived in Europe in 1347 From 1347 to 1350s, called Black Death, first wave of second pandemic Afterwards, called bubonic plague, plague, or pestilence o Possibly transmitted via a Genoese merchant ship arriving from Black Sea in 1347 Hit Italy first as Italy was at center of Mediterranean trade routes, always at risk during this time Killed 1\3 of Europe's population Plague returns once a generation after 1350s for many centuries afterwards, many local epidemics Florence in 1348, 50% of population dies Boccaccio's Decameron discusses this 1576-1577 and again in 1630 in Milan Manzoni's The Betrothed and the Column of Infamy written 1656 Naples 1665-1666 London After this, plague vanquished in Western Europe in end of 17th century and middle of 18th century
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