Profound change is cumulative product of slow but

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profound change is cumulative product of slow but continuous processes Hutton believed that geologic structures changed through time “We find no vestige of a beginning, no prospect of an end.” (1786) Adam Smith 1723-1790 Laissez-faire economics Chaos governed by invisible hand The benefits of competition Believed people were selfish Competition and self-motivation from the heart of Smith’s theory: “It is not from the benevolence of the butcher, the brewer, or the baker that we expect our sinner, but from their regard to their own interest. We address ourselves, not to their humanity but to their self-love, and never talk to them of our own necessities but of their advantages.” Jean-Baptiste Lamarck 1744-1829 First truly complete theory of evolution Environmental forces shape adaptation Use and disuse Believed if a trait was more used it would be passed on more and the future generations would share that trait Thomas Malthus 1766-1834 An Essay on the Principle of Population Populations grow geometrically, while food supplies grow linearly This creates competition for food supply Outside forces “rectify” this disparity Georges Cuvier 1769-1832
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Establishes comparative anatomy and paleontology Verifies that extinction occurs Proponent of “catastrophism” Proved wrong the creation story in which God’s creations did not change Charles Lyell 1797-1875 The processes that shape ancient geology are the same in those in modern times Steady accumulation of minute changes Young Darwin’s reading material Darwin’s theories about the formation of atolls supported Lyell’s theory of uniformitarianism Charles Darwin 1809-1882 Species evolve from common ancestors (common descent) Mechanism of evolution is natural selection Father wanted him to be a doctor but Darwin was revolted by surgery H.M.S. Beagle voyage (1831-1836) Traveled around the world observing species Found fossil of Glyptodon Studied galapagos mockingbirds, galapagos tortoise, finches Discovered that they did not only look different, but they were different species Transmutation of species All species come from already existing species Alfred Russel Wallace 1823-1913 Not rich like Darwin → has to work for a living (different mental place) “Wallace’s line”- Lombok and Bali separated by a straight less than 20 miles wide The diseases that keep human population in check also apply to animals “The life of wild animals is a struggle for existence” Perhaps all variations….must have some definite effect...in the habits and capacities of the individuals …. A variety having slightly increased powers… must inevitably acquire a superiority in numbers” Inspired Darwin to publish his book sooner Gregor Mendel 1822-1884 Father of genetics Traits are inherited by predictable laws James Watson and Francis Crick Discovered structure of DNA Means for heritable information to be stored and passed on
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9/7/18 ---------- Darwin’s Evidence 1.
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