Sein depending on the auxiliary required for the verb

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sein , depending on the auxiliary required for the verb concerned, e.g. Sie hat ihn gefragt: „Warum hast du mir nicht geholfen?“ She asked him, ‘Why didn’t you help me?’ Sie hat ihn gefragt, warum er ihr nicht geholfen habe. She asked him why he didn’t help her/hadn’t helped her. Sie hat ihn gefragt, warum er nicht mitgegangen sei. She asked him why he didn’t go along too/hadn’t gone along too. Subjunctive I belongs to the realm of higher style and is found very commonly in journalese, but it is virtually always interchangeable with the present indicative. In fact because three of the six persons of the verb are identical to the present indicative, subjunctive II forms (see 10.3.2) are frequently used instead of subjunctive I forms, for all six persons, when reporting indirect speech. The following are all alternative versions of the previously mentioned examples: Sie hat ihn gefragt, warum er nicht mitkommt. (present indicative) Sie hat ihn gefragt, warum er nicht mitkäme. (subjunctive II) Sie hat ihn gefragt, warum er ihr nicht geholfen hat. (present indicative) Sie hat ihn gefragt, warum er ihr nicht geholfen hätte. (subjunctive II) Sie hat ihn gefragt, warum er nicht mitgegangen ist. (present indicative) Sie hat ihn gefragt, warum er nicht mitgegangen wäre. (subjunctive II) 10.3.1.1 Omission of dass It is not uncommon when reporting indirect speech in a subordinate clause that would otherwise be introduced by dass , to omit the conjunction, but then it is necessary to use either form of the subjunctive, not the indicative, and the finite verb in the subjunctive is left in second place, not sent to the end of the clause, e.g.
141 Er hat gesagt, dass er zwei Wochen in Russland gewesen ist/sei/wäre. Er hat gesagt, er sei/wäre zwei Wochen in Russland gewesen. He said he was/had been in Russia for two weeks. 10.3.2 The subjunctive II You will use subjunctive II much more often than subjunctive I, as it is indispensable. The past subjunctive is complicated, but what you need to know actively is much less than you need to know passively – most forms you can recognize and understand but will rarely need to use yourself. 10.3.2.1 The subjunctive II of strong verbs There is only one living example of subjunctive II in English (called the past subjunctive in English), which is a good place to start as it corresponds exactly with German, i.e. ‘If I were healthy, I would go along too.’ ‘If I were healthy’ states a hypothesis, as opposed to ‘I was healthy’, which states a fact. German makes the same distinction, e.g. Wenn ich gesund wäre, würde ich auch mitgehen versus Ich war gesund . But German always makes this distinction between the past subjunctive (i.e. subjunctive II) and the past indicative (i.e. the imperfect), whereas in English it is only obvious with certain persons of the verb ‘to be’ where ‘was’ and ‘were’ alternate, not with any other verb, e.g. Wenn ich ein Auto hätte, würde ich dich nach Hause bringen. If I had a car I would take you home. Here German can continue to show the difference between the fact ( Ich hatte ein Auto ) and the hypothesis (

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