Training aimed at specific groupsTraining in specific safety-related tasksIntended to educate employees on safe working practices in order to influence their behaviorsMost of these programs emphasize the development of both declarative knowledge and procedural knowledgeInterpersonal skills trainingVast majority of training expenditures in organizations are targeted toward some form of interpersonal skills training (e.g. leadership, communication, teamwork, feedback, and active listening)Such interpersonal and intrapersonal “soft skills” allow people to make better use of the technical skills required for their work
Interpersonal skills training is more frequently rooted in a theoretical modelThe task of training is to teach individuals the principles of the model and allow them to develop and practice the skills advocatedCameron and Whetten (1995) have suggested that this form of training is based on four essential elements1.Trainees are presented with the behavioral principles that are to be learned2.The behavioral principles are modeled (most frequently using role plays or videos) so that trainees can see the principles in action3.Trainees are given the opportunity to practice the principles (most typically through role plays and exercises)4.Trainees are given feedback on their performanceLeadership trainingA form of interpersonal skills trainingTypically involve training in the form of workshops, participation in coaching, or combinations of both approachesAviolo et al. reported evidence that leadership interventions do in fact workData supported a slightly stronger effect for developmental, as opposed to training, activities but overall resulted in the conclusion that leadership development was an effective interventionCoachingNot the same as trainingWidely used method of employee developmentExecutive coaching in particular had been widely implemented in both the public and private sector and has become one of the fastest-growing executive development options within global companiesOne primary dimension along which coaching interventions differ is whether the coach isexternal to the organization or part of the same organization as the executive being developedKilburg defines executive coaching as:“a helping relationship formed between a client who has managerial authority and responsibility in an organization and a consultant who uses a wide variety of behavioral techniques and methods to help the client achieve a mutually identified set of goals to improve his or her professional performance and personal satisfaction and, consequently, to improve the effectiveness of the client’s organization”Several advantages to external coaching1.does not require the use of in-house resources or additional employees
2.external coaches are perceived by executives as being highly credible and objective due to their extensive experience and credentials3.