The notion of double consciousness within society

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an individual’s self-image based on perceptions and stereotypes within society. The notion of double consciousness within society expresses “the sense of always looking at one’s self through the eyes of others” (Dukes, 2018, p. 7). Additionally, DuBois explains double consciousness between African American’s and American’s as having two separate thoughts, two separate souls, and more (Dukes, 2018). With the concept of double consciousness, DuBois recognized racial inequality and prejudice within society and how the racial disparities split American’s and African Americans in the American society (Dukes, 2018). The social concept of double consciousness depicts an individual that feels as if they have more than one social identity which makes it hard for that individual to create a sense of self in society (Adams & Sydie, 2002). Similarities and Differences Simmel’s notion of the stranger and DuBois theory on double consciousness share both similarities and differences. Both sociologists have identified how individuals within society can belong to groups within society, and how individuals can be part of a group based on their qualities and characteristics but still be distanced from the particular group. Simmel identified that conflict within society is a “destructive force that should be prevented” but if it is properly
STRANGER AND DOUBLE CONSCIOUSNESS 5 maintained it can increase unity and integration amongst social groups (Adams & Sydie, 2002, p. 205). By analyzing wartime, Simmel explains how during peaceful times group members are tolerated and more laid-back verses when at war individual digression from the group objectives are not tolerated (Adams & Sydie, 2002). Additionally, group size can impact the notion of the stranger and double consciousness within society. Larger group sizes open the door for additional conflict and competition and can increase social distance and the notion of the stranger. W.E.B. DuBois’ notion of double consciousness and Georg Simmel’s notion of the stranger both have similar concepts regarding social interactions amongst individuals within social groups. Although the individual is connected to a particular social group they are not specifically attached to the social group. Additionally, each individual that belongs to a particular social group can also survive outside of the social group with both the notion of the stranger and the notion of double consciousness. With the notion of double consciousness, DuBois focuses on

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