Confirmation at some point before maturity usually at

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Confirmation. At some point before maturity, usually at about age thirteen, children must be confirmed as an extension of their baptism. Penance. Christians must confess their sins regularly in private to priests and receive absolution. Absolution, or forgiveness, may be conditioned upon acts of penance ordered by the priest, depending on the seriousness of the sin confessed.Eucharist. This sacrament is known throughout the Christian world as the Lord’s Supper or communion. The Council of Trent not only reaffirmed this sacrament but also gave renewed support to the doctrine of transubstantiation. According to this doctrine, the bread and wine literally become the body and blood of Jesus during the mass. The council held that because the whole Christ was present in both the bread and the wine, it was not necessary to give the wine to the laity. Extreme Unction. As a Catholic nears death, he or she is to be visited by a priest and anointed with healing oil. The priest then hears the last confession.In receiving these last rites, the Catholic is properly prepared to die.Marriage. Perhaps as early as the eleventh century, the marriage of Christianshad come to be regarded as a sacrament. This explains continued opposition to divorce by some Christian denominations.Holy Orders. For Christians who choose a religious vocation instead of marriage, taking the holy orders is considered a sacrament.Vatican IIJohn XXIII became pope in 1958 and was determined to revitalize the Church and bring it into line with the twentieth century. Therefore, he called the Second Vatican Council (often called Vatican II), which was to be the most revolutionary council since Trent. 25 Invited to the Council were representatives of Orthodox and Protestant Christian groups acting as observers to the proceedings. Meeting between 1962 and 1965, the Council effected some of the most sweeping changes ever made in the Catholic Church. Non-Catholics were recognized as true Christians, the vernacular wasallowed in many parts of the mass, the Index of Prohibited Books was abolished, more congregational participation in worship was encouraged, and the Church officially declared that Jews were no longer to be held responsible for the death of Jesus. There also was an outreach toward dialogue with non-Christian religions. In general, Vatican II attempted to
bring the Church up to date and took several steps toward reconciliation withOrthodox and Protestant groups.MethodismThe proliferation of Protestant denominations in the modern era is vast. There are so many Protestant denominations that not even the most exhaustive book on the history of Christianity could cover them all effectively.However, several modern Protestant movements merit our attention; these movements respond in creative ways to changing global circumstances.

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