Renin’s primary function is to eventually cause an increase I blood pressure, leading to restoration of perfusion pressure in the kidneys. Renin is secreted from the juxtaglomerular kidney cells, which sense changes in renal perfusion pressure, via stretch receptors in the vascular walls. 32.What factors can cause heart disease (atherosclerosis)?Smoking.High LDL, or "bad" cholesterol and low HDL, or "good" cholesterol.Uncontrolled hypertension (high blood pressure)Physical inactivity.Obesity (more than 20% over one's ideal body weight)Uncontrolled diabetes.High C-reactive protein.Uncontrolled stress and anger.33.Explain the functions and main structures involved in pulmonary and systemic blood circulation.Pulmonary circuit: Right atrium Right ventriclePulmonary artery (“blue blood” – low O2)Lungs blood vessels (“red blood” – high O2)Pulmonary veinsSystemic circuit:Left atriumLeft ventricleAortaBody blood vessels (+coronary blood vessels)Superior and inferior vena cava34.List the 3 types of blood vessel type that blood goes through as it leaves the heart, before it returns back to the heart. In which type does the exchange of molecules happen?Arteries: carry blood away from the heart.Large elastic arteries (>1cm);Medium muscular arteries (0.1mm-1cm);Arterioles (<0.1mm)Capillaries:site of nutrient and gas exchange
Veins:carry blood towards the heart Venules:are small veins (<0.1mm)35.Explain the location of major blood vessels of the body, such as aorta, coronary arteries, vena cava, portal vein, pulmonary arteries (pulmonary trunk) and pulmonary veins, carotid arteries, subclavian arteries. which organs does each supply or receive blood from?Aorta: supplies oxygenated blood out of the heart.Coronary arteries:an artery supplying blood to the heartVena cava:brings deoxygenated blood from the body into the heart.Portal vein:takes blood to the liver from the spleen, stomach, pancreas, and intestines.Pulmonary arteries:artery carrying blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs for oxygenation.Carotid arteries:major blood vessels in the neck that supply blood to the brain, neck, and face. Subclavian arteries:paired major arteries of the upper thorax (chest), below the clavicle in human anatomy. They receive blood from the aortic arch.36.What are the functions of anastomosis blood vessels? Where can you find them?A connection (an anastomosis) between two blood vessels, such as between arteries (arterio-arterialanastomosis), between veins (veno-venous anastomosis) or between an artery and a vein(arterio-venous anastomosis).37.Explain how portal circulation is different from regular circulation. In which organs can you find it?The liver is unusual in that it has double blood supply; the right and left hepatic arteries carry oxygenated blood to the liver, and the portal vein carries venous blood from the GI tract to the liver.