away from the other guests, refusing to speak to each other. However, during the party, Akmalkept wondering; how do those people know each other? And why they have different forms ofrelationship? Based on that scenario, we can see that people talk to each other with different way.We can relate this scenario with Social Penetration Theory because people communicate witheach other based on their relationship either they just meet or already know each other for a longtime.3
STAGES OF SELF-DISCLOSUREAltman and Dalmas described that process of self-disclosure as peeling back the layers ofan onion, which have both breadth and depth. “Breadth” refers to the various side of a personlife, such as work and family. “Depth” stands for the details concerning each other of these areas.The outer layers of the onion represent superficial information about a person, such as physicalappearance and speech. The deeper layers represent more intimate information, such as theperson’s thoughts, feelings and relationships with others. As a person self-discloses to a friend orpartner, she peels away the outer layers of herself toward exposing her core nature. Altman andTaylor outlined the various stages of intimacy that result from this process of self-disclosure:1. Orientation Stage— Also known as the small talk or first impression stage. Communicators become known by observing characteristic and personal outfit and by exchanging non-intimateinformation about themselves. 2. Exploratory Affective Stage— Communicators begin to reveal more about themselves, such as their opinions concerning their hobbies and current issues. Deeply personal information is retaining. Casual friendships develop at this stage, and most relationships stay at this level.3. Affective Stage— Communicators begin to disclose personal and private matters. Personal ways of speaking, such as using idioms or irregular language. Communicators feelcomfortableenough to argue or criticize each other. Romantic relationships develop at this stage.4. Stable Stage— Communicators share a relationship in which disclosure is open and comfortable. They can predict how the other person will react to certain types of information.5. Depenetration— Occurs when one or both communicators perceive that the cost of self-disclosure be greater its benefits. Communicators leave from self-disclosure, thus ending the relationship.4
ASSUMPTIONS OF SOCIAL PENETRATION THEORYIn this theory, it has four assumptions. The first is about relationships progress from non-intimate to intimate which is we try to get know each other at first and not all relationship willfall into the extremes. As we can see, in the case Akmal was invited by his friend to his brother’swedding. From that, Akmal will meet many people at there and the relationship can be developedby getting know each other and making new friends. Thus, it can also be seen when theacquaintances exchange their names and shares about their musical preferences. Next,relationship development is generally and predictable where relationships are dynamic and ever-changing but even dynamic relationships follow some acceptable standard and pattern ofdevelopment. Furthermore, relationship development includes de-penetration and dissolution.