Marx argued that in the society of the future

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would come under communal ownership, and a more humane society than we know at present would be established. Marx argued that, in the society of the future, production would be more advanced and efficient than production under capitalism. Marx's work had a far-reaching effect on the twentieth-century world. Until only a generation ago, more than a third of the earth's population lived in societies, such as the Soviet Union and the countries of Eastern Europe, whose governments claimed to derive their inspiration from Marx's ideas. 11, Why M. Weber was so strongly critical of some Marx’s major views? In common with other thinkers of his time, Weber sought to understand the nature and causes of social change. He was influenced by Marx but was also strongly What is Sociology? critical of some of Marx's major views. He rej ected the materialist conception of history and saw class conflict as less significant than did Marx. In Weber's vi ew, economic factors are important, but ideas and values have just as much impact on social change. Unlike other early sociological thinkers, Weber argued that sociology should focus on social action, not social structures. He argued that human motivation and ideas were the forces behind change - ideas, values and beliefs had the power to bring about transformations. According to Weber, individuals have the ability to act freely and to shape the future. He did not see, as did Durkheim and Marx, that structures existed external to or independent of individuals. Rather, structures in society were formed by a complex interplay of actions. It was the job of sociology to understand the meanings behind those actions 12. Define Weber’s contributions to the sociology of religion. Sociology of religion is the study of the beliefs, practices and organizational forms of religion using the tools and methods of the discipline of sociology. This objective investigation may include the use of both quantitative methods (surveys, polls, demographic and census analysis) and qualitative approaches such as participant observation, interviewing, and analysis of archival, historical and documentary materials. The works of Karl Marx and Max Weber emphasized the relationship between religion and the economic or social structure of society. Contemporary debates have centered on issues such as secularization, civil religion, and the cohesiveness of religion in the context of globalization and multiculturalism. The contemporary sociology of religion may also encompass the sociology of irreligion (for instance, in the analysis of secular humanistbelief systems). 13.What did Weber mean viewing that cultural ideas and values help shape society and shape our individual actions. Weber is often regarded as the most important classical sociological theorist since he investigated many areas and since his approach and methods guide much later sociological analysis. Like Marx, Weber had a wide ranging set of interests: politics, history, language, religion, law, economics, and administration, in addition to sociology. His historical and
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