Durkheim was most interested in the way things change

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Durkheim was most interested in the way things change in terms of how social solidarity is produced, in other words, the way in which society is held together and how its members see
themselves as a collective. To illustrate this difference, Durkheim referred to two types of solidarity which are mechanical and organic. A society characterized by mechanical solidarity is unified because all people are generalists (Ritzer 2008, pg. 85). The social interaction of members of this society who have common values and beliefs. These common values and beliefsconstitutes a “collective conscience” that works internally in individual members to cause them to cooperate. Mechanical solidarity refers to solidarity found in smaller, pre-industrialized and/or un-industrialized societies. In contrast, a society characterized by organic solidarity is held together by the differences among people, by the fact that all have different tasks and responsibilities (Ritzer, 2008, pg. 85). Organic solidarity, which is based on the division of labor, is largely seen in industrial and/or post-industrial societies. The division of labor results in peoplewho are specialized in specific areas or functions. As a result, people have become highly dependent upon each other, since no one person can do everything. For example, Jeff had to depend on lawyers, a realtor, chefs, etc. to make his dream a reality. It's because the people are dependent upon each other that society thrives. Thus Durkheim argues that modern society is held together by the specialization of people and their need for the services of many others. This means that specialization includes not only that of individuals but also of groups, structures, and institutions. Durkheim also argued that primitive societies have a stronger collective conscience (i.e. more shared understandings, norms, and beliefs). The increasing division of labor has caused a decrease of the collective conscience in today’s society. Durkheim claims that thecollective conscience is less significant in a society with organic solidarity than it is in a society with mechanical solidarity. This is because people in modern society are more likely to be held together by the division of labor and the need for the functions performed by others than they areby a shared collective conscience.
Durkheim believed that the cause of the transition from mechanical to organic solidarity was dynamic density. This concept refers to the number of people in a society and the amount of interaction that occurs among them. More people means an increase in the competition for scarceresources and more struggle for survival among the basic components of society. Durkheim claimed that societies with organic solidarity had less competition and more differentiation to allow people to cooperate more and to all be supported by the same resource base. Therefore, differences between people allowed for closer bonds between them rather than similarity. This

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