Stephens 3 membership opened to all who toiled 4 only

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3.Membership opened to all who “toiled”4.Only excluded bankers lawyers, liquior dealers and professional gamblers5.Welcomed women workers even those who worked only in their own homes!6.Loosely organized w/out much central direction7.Mostly met in local assemblies8.They championed an 8hr workday and abolition of child labor9.Hoped to replace the ‘wage system’ with a ‘cooperative system’ where worker swould own a large part of the economy10. 1870s expanded under Terence b. powderly11. By 1886 nvnebership was over half amiliion 12. Several strikes were ‘brokena.This helped discredit the organizationBy early twentieth century it was goneUriah StephensTerence V. Powderly1.1870s expanded under Terence b. powderlyThe American Federation of Labor (AFL)1.1881 repr. From craft unions formed the American federation of labor (AFL)2.Rejected knights idea of one big union for all3.Was an association of mainly skilled workers4.Generally hostile to the non skilled workers5.Hostile toward women entering the work forcea.Female labor represents the knife of the assassin aimed at the family circle6.Even though hostile to women workers they still foughjt for equal pay for women
7.Some say they did this to make hiring women less attractive to owners and drive them outof the workforce8.Samuel gompers became the most well knonw leader9.Afl demanded an 8 hour workday10. Called for a general strike of workers in 1886The Homestead Steel Strike1.Pitssburgh amalgamated association of iron and steel workers afflilitated with afl was most powercful trade union in the country2.Members were skilled workders in demand b3.By the 1800s steel industry had streamlined steelmaking process; this reduced the need for hgihtly skilled workers4.There were only 3 major factories in steel industry at the time- union had a strong holed only in the homestead plaht in Pittsburgh 5.Henry clay frick decideds that amalgamated had to be stopped6.He denied the union the right to negotiate 7.Frik announced a (another) wage cut at homestead – giving the union 2 days to accept it8.The amalgamated called for a strike 9.Frick shut down the plant and called 300 guards from the pinkerton detective agency10. Pinkerton agency was a pribate security firm11. They had become well known as strike breakers12. Their mere presence was enough to incite many workers to biolence13. July 6, 1892, the pinkertons approached the plant by riber barge(NEWBIES had no experience as strike breakers)14. The strikers had poured oil on the water and set it on fire- and met the guards with guns15. After several hours of battle, three guards and ten strikers were killed many injured16. Pinkertons surrendered and were escorted out of town 17. Workers victory was temporary18. Governor of Pennsylvania sent in the entire national guard- 8000 troops- to homestead 19. Production resumed with strikebreakers protected by troops20. Public opion turned against strikers when frick was victim of an assassination attempt
Henry Clay Frick

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