Grainger’s business is subject to a wide array of laws, regulations and standards in every domestic and foreign jurisdiction where it operates, including advertising and marketing regulations, anti-bribery and corruption laws, anti-competition regulations, data protection (including payment card industry data security standards), data privacy (including in the U.S. and the European Union, which has traditionally imposed strict obligations under data privacy laws and regulations that vary from country to country) and cybersecurity requirements (including protection of information and incident responses), environmental protection laws, foreign exchange controls and cash repatriation restrictions, government business regulations applicable to Grainger as a government contractor selling to federal, state and local government entities, health and safety laws, import and export requirements, intellectual property laws, labor laws, product compliance laws, supplier regulations regarding the sources of supplies or products, tax laws (including as to U.S. taxes on foreign subsidiaries), unclaimed property laws and laws, regulations and standards applicable to other commercial matters. Moreover, Grainger is also subject to audits and inquiries in the normal course of business.Failure to comply with any of these laws, regulations and standards could result in civil, criminal, monetary and non-monetary penalties as well as potential damage to the Company’s reputation. Changes in these laws, regulations and standards, or in their interpretation, could increase the cost of doing business, including, among other factors, as a result of increased investments in technology and the development of new operational processes. Furthermore, while Grainger has implemented policies and procedures designed to facilitate compliance with these laws, regulations and standards, there can be no assurance that employees, contractors or agents will not violate such laws, regulations and standards or Grainger’s policies. Any such failure to comply or violation could individually or in the aggregate materially adversely affect Grainger’s financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.Grainger also is, and from time to time may become, party to a number of legal proceedings incidental to Grainger’s business involving alleged damages or injuries arising out of the use of Grainger’s products and services or violations of these laws, regulations or standards. The defense of these proceedings may require significant expenses and divert management’s time and attention, and Grainger may be required to pay damages that could individually or in the aggregate materially adversely affect its financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. In addition, any insurance or indemnification rights that Grainger may have with respect to such matters may be insufficient or unavailable to protect the Company against potential loss exposures.