Positive and Negative Reinforcers The use of instrumental conditioning is

Positive and negative reinforcers the use of

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Positive and Negative Reinforcers - The use of instrumental conditioning is brought on by a variety of intentions and different methods of reinforcement can modify behaviour in different ways Training types
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- Reward training involves the presentation of an appetitive stimulus after the desired behavior is performed that will increase the likelihood of the behaviour - Escape training involves the removal of an aversive stimulus to increase desired behavior - Punishment involves the presentation of an aversive stimulus in order to decrease undesired behavior - Omission training involves the removal of an appetitive stimulus in order to decrease undesired behaviour Consequence Timing - The most effective way to ensure associations are formed between behaviours and consequences is to present consequences immediately after the behaviour - This may not be ideal in real-world settings, but we are often raised to be able to deal with delayed gratification and still learn to the response Shaping and Chaining - Shaping by successive approximations is the method used to train organisms to perform complex behaviour by breaking the behaviour into is component parts and reinforcing their acquisition through successive levels of difficulty. - Chaining involves adding on increasingly complex behavioural requirements to the original requirements in order to receive the original reinforcer Complexities in Reinforcement - The reinforcement of behaviour through Instrumental Conditioning is marked by a number of complexities and factors that when manipulated slightly, can change the behaviour of individuals in different ways Indications of Complexity - Contrast effects are changes in response rates as a result of changes in reward values - Negative contrast: lowering of reward value - Positive contrast: increasing reward value - The Overjustification effect displays how changes in reinforcement i.e. presentation of rewards for behaviours already naturally performed, alter the perception of the behaviour Schedules of reinforcement - Continuous reinforcement: reinforcers for all correct responses - Partial reinforcement: reinforcers for a portion of correct responses - Fixed ratio schedule: reinforcement after a set number of responses - Variable ratio schedule: reinforcement after random number of responses around a set mean - Fixed interval schedule: reinforcement after a fixed period of time - Variable Interval schedule: reinforcement after a random period of time around a set mean Observational learning - Associative learning involves direct experience and often leads to imitation or avoidance behaviours when appropriate, especially in unfamiliar situations - Understanding learning in such ways has applications for behavioural issues as well as understanding the neurological basis of imitation.
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