exam_2012-fall-3-answers

The metabolite of methanol formic acid has selective

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13. The metabolite of methanol, formic acid, has selective toxic effects on A. The liver B. The kidney C. The optic nerve and retina D The spinal cord E The stomach 14. Which one of the following is NOT a desirable characteristic of a general anaesthetic? 15. At which stage of anesthesia would most patients like their surgeons to start surgery? 16. Local anesthetics exert their effects through 17. Reye’s syndrome is a worrisome side effect in children administered A. Acetaminophen B. Morphine C. Ibuprofen D. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) E. Meperidine
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18. Fill in the blank. Low initial sensitivity to alcohol in college students increases their risk for the future development of alcoholism (0.5 marks) 19. The only way of demonstrating physical dependence on a drug is ..... by taking away the drug and observing signs of withdrawal ________________________ ( 0.5 marks ) 20. What is methadone (what kind of drug?) and what is the rationale for giving heroin addicts methadone as part of their treatment? ( 1 mark ). Methadone is an opioid agonist with a very long duration of action (as compared to heroin). Because of its slow metabolism it lessens the severity of withdrawal signs that the patient would otherwise have from suddenly stopping heroin usage. Thus it lessens the likelihood of withdrawal-induced drug seeking behaviour 21. Analgesics such as aspirin have the unwanted side effect of causing gastrointestinal bleeding. Newer analgesics such as rofecoxib (Vioxx) and celecoxib (Celebrex) were developed to minimize that. Briefly describe why aspirin produces gi bleeding but the newer compounds don’t ( 1 mark ) Aspirin inhibits both isoforms of cyclo-oxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2), while rofecoxib and celecoxib are selective antagonists of COX-2. It is the COX-1 inhibition by aspirin that results in gi bleeding. 22. List any TWO features that are commonly seen in children with fetal alcohol syndrome ( 2 marks ) Any two of the following: small head (microcephaly), small midface, short nose, low nasal bridge, small eye openings, epicanthic fold, widely separated eyes, a smooth philtrum, thin upper lip, mental/physical retardation, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) 23. An animal model for anxiety is conditioned emotional response. Briefly explain this model and what effects anxiolytics like benzodiazepines would be expected to have in it. ( 2 marks ) A hungry animal is placed in a small chamber in which it has previously been taught to press a lever to obtain a food reward. Once this training is complete (the rat has reached criterion
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