The colony was to be integrated with the world

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;lnd modernization.The colony was to be integrated with the world capitalist econonly and the nlother,country. Foreign trade was to be freed of all restrictions and tariffs Capitalists were allowed to develop plantations, trade, transport, mining and industries. Capitalist farming was to he introduced. The system of transport and con~munications was developed to facilitate the mo\lement of massive quantities of raw materials to the ports for export. Railway expansion was undertaken and a modern post and telegraph system was set up. In the field of administration, it was deemed necessary to make it more detailed and colnprehensive so that imports could penetrate the villages and raw materials could he taken out easily. Capitalist cc;mmercial relations were to be enforced. rile legal system was to be improved so as to ellsurc upholding the sanctity of' contract. However. no change was made in the sphere of personal law. Modern education was introduced to produce men who w.ould man the new administration. It was also expected that wester~~ization would increase the dc\m:ind for i~l~ported goods. In the field of politics! ideology liberal imperialism was the watchword. The perspective was to train the people of the colony towards self- government. There was confidence that the economic relationship would continue even if formal political control were ended. A corollary to !he perspective of modernization was the critical view of existing modes of living. The ideology was developn~ent. The intention was not to deliberately underdevelop the country. Underdevelopment was not the desired but the inevitable consequence ofthe inexorable working of colonialism of trade and of its inner contradictions. Hence there was no imperialst theory of un~lrrdevclopment-only of development. 21.7.3 Third Stage By the middle of the nineteenth century certain significant changes had taken place in the nature of world capitalism. As industrialisation spread to the rest of the developed worid the supremacy of Britain ended and there was an intense struggle for markets arld source.s OJ' raw nwterials and foodstuffs. There was also excess nccurnulation 'of capital, which looked for lucrative opportunities for investment. Those countries with coionies were obviously at an advantage as these were areas 0ve.r which they had exclusive suprenlacy. Another consideration was that the empire and its glory could be used to deflect political disscilt at home and impart a com~nonality of interests between potentially conflicting social classes. The third stage of colonialism led to more intensive control over the colony. In the sphere of ideology the mood was one of reaction. The administration became more bureaucratic, detailed 21.j efkicient as the need for intensive control increased. There was n o more talk of seli- government; instead benevolent despotism was the new ideology, according to which the colonial people were seen as a child people who would need guardians forever. Modernisatjol;
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