Leaders also differ in regard to how they motivate others and what they seek to achieve. Transactional leaders are task-oriented and focus on getting group members to achieve goals (Jung and Avolio 1999). These type of leaders reward accomplishing routine goals but do not especially inspire performance beyond the routine. In other words, their group members accomplish their tasks but generally do not make extra efforts beyond those required. In an accounting department, for example, the billers would get the monthly invoices out as re- quired but not do more (e.g., meet to develop ways to improve the invoicing pro- cess). Another type of leader is transformational. These leaders encourage others to go beyond the routine by building a different type of organization that focuses on future possibilities (Kanter 1983). Transformational leaders use en- thusiasm and optimism to inspire others. They encourage innovation and cre- ativity. They exhibit characteristics that others can identify with, trust, and follow. Transformational leaders also focus on mentoring others as leaders (Hellriegel, Slocum, and Woodman 2001, 362–68). In an accounting department headed by a transformational leader, the staff might regularly meet to discuss more efficient ways to work or how to improve customer satisfaction, or devote time to testing new software that would help the department improve its efficiency. Power Leaders have differential levels of power, the ability to influence others, even if those others resist (Weber 1947). Greater power also allows a person or group to better resist when others try to control them. Power is a relative term. It is measured in relation to another person or group. French and Raven (1959) have shown that power can be rooted on one or more of five bases. First, when someone or some group controls the distribu- tion of valued rewards or negative reinforcements, they hold reward power. A manager who has the ability to give pay raises holds reward power. Second, when someone or some group can punish others for noncompliance with their wishes, they hold coercive power. A school principal exercises coercive power when ex- The Basics of Sociology 88
pelling a student for rule breaking. Third, those with whom someone wishes to identify or be like (in other words, their reference group), hold referent power. An example of referent power is a rock star whose dress, demeanor, and singing style is copied by an aspiring young singer. Fourth, those who have, or are per- ceived as having, some special expertise hold expert power. An engineer who has overseen the building of several bridges has expert power over a team of inex- perienced junior engineers working on a similar project. Fifth, when someone or some group is recognized as having a valid claim to require compliance to their wishes, they hold legitimate power. This may also be referred to as authority. A police office holds legitimate power or authority.
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