Sees the most crucial changes o visitor numbers

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Sees the most crucial changes o Visitor numbers becomes substantial o The destination grows in popularity o Services and facilities begin to expand o Provided by major operators o Decline in local control 11. Tourist Area Life Cycle (TALC) Development Stage o Development of new services and infrastructure o Natural and built environment suffer from wear and tear o Protest by local community against such development o Conflict between local population and tourism © University of Waterloo and others 3
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Module 8 | Tourist Area Life Cycle (TALC): Implications for Policies and Planning 12. Tourist Area Life Cycle (TALC) Consolidation Stage o Tourist numbers continue to rise o The economy becomes largely reliant on tourism o Dominated by major chains and franchises o Residents who do not depend on tourism may display negative attitude toward the industry o Increased advertising to extend tourist season 13. Tourist Area Life Cycle (TALC) Consolidation Stage o Infrastructure starts showing signs of wear and tear o The manner in which resources have been managed will determine the future of the destination o Increase in visitation continues to put further demand on the destination’s resources 14. Tourist Area Life Cycle (TALC) Stagnation Stage o During this stage the carrying capacity of many relevant factors are reached o Social, economic and environmental problems o The destination is no longer a popular resort o Need to develop new tourism markets and products o The extent to which planning and management has been effective will determine the sustainability of the destination 15. Tourist Area Life Cycle (TALC) Decline Stage o Visitor number falls o Increased marketing and promotional efforts o Property turnover becomes high o Tourism impacts become prominent o If issues are not resolved this results in a severe drop in tourist numbers Application 16. Application Butler’s area life cycle stipulates that growth of tourism leads to social carrying capacity Attitudes are therefore positive in the earlier phase of tourism development Attitudes worsen as the destination develops © University of Waterloo and others 4
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Module 8 | Tourist Area Life Cycle (TALC): Implications for Policies and Planning Strengths 17. Strength of TALC Deals with supply and demand together Takes long-term view of destination Emphasizes destination dynamics Emphasizes role of industry ownership and control Emphasizes key stakeholder interaction – different businesses, host community Emphasizes the need for destination management Criticisms 18. Criticisms Butler’s theory has not been found easy to be applied in any given situation without modification Studies have found that in spite of high levels of tourism development residents were still positive about the tourism industry 19. Criticisms It is a resort model Progress through the life cycle is not inevitable Visitor numbers are an ambiguous measure The tourist area is not an integrated product The role of resources is neglected © University of Waterloo and others 5
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  • Winter '10
  • Cullen
  • Tourism Supply

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