The similitude is even reinforced by the absence of sociodemographic difference

The similitude is even reinforced by the absence of

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The similitude is even reinforced by the absence of sociodemographic difference in one decade for these individuals. Thus, they are not that different from their counterpart in 2001 but they do experience a more segregated housing market in 2011. Then, the explanation does not seem to be directly related to economic constraints or a deep social change which suggests that discrimination might be at play rather than the formation of rich Black ghettos. Access to public goods however has a larger impact on segregation. At the 60th quantile, it would have increased the proportion of Blacks by approximately 10 percentage points, twice as large as the effect of income. This might be explained by the huge in- vestments in access to basic public services since Nelson Mandela’s mandate. 47 Finally, past segregation also has a similar effect as public goods, around 10 per- centage points of increase at the 60th quantile. This seems to indicate a weaker persistence of segregation through time. Counterfactuals are constructed by re- stricting the conditional distribution to the common support of interest. In this case, the conditional distributions of Blacks and Whites are computed by com- paring subplaces in 2011 to those with similar levels of past segregation in 2001. Thus, with comparable levels of past segregation, Whites in 2011 still experience a higher share of Blacks. Hence, it seems more easy to break away from a legacy of segregation in 2011 than in 2001 which is particularly a good news for South Africans. When we turn to the structure effect, we observe always the reverse of the composition effect. For each source of segregation, when the composition effect is positive, the structure effect is negative and vice versa. Though it looks like it is symmetric, it is not. There is always a gap between each structure and composition effect. Structure effects also are significant for segregation generally at the same quantiles as composition effects. Thus, past segregation, income, sociodemographics, and public goods have a negative impact on segregation, while the housing market has a positive impact on the gap. This indicates that in 2011 all sources except the housing market have a lower marginal impact on segregation than in 2001, therefore contributing to increasing segregation. Finally, if we look at the relative contributions (Figure 7) of each source of seg- 47 See Thomson[52] for more details about the RDP and GEAR programmes. 21
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0 .1 .2 .3 0 .2 .4 .6 .8 1 Cumulative distribution of Whites 95% confidence bands 90% confidence bands Segregation -.3 -.2 -.1 0 .1 0 .2 .4 .6 .8 1 Cumulative distribution of Whites 95% confidence bands 90% confidence bands Housing market 0 .05 .1 .15 .2 .25 0 .2 .4 .6 .8 1 Cumulative distribution of Whites 95% confidence bands 90% confidence bands Income -.1 0 .1 .2 .3 0 .2 .4 .6 .8 1 Cumulative distribution of Whites 95% confidence bands 90% confidence bands Demographics 0 .05 .1 .15 .2 .25 0 .2 .4 .6 .8 1 Cumulative distribution of Whites 95% confidence bands 90% confidence bands Public goods Figure 5: Composition effects of the detailed decomposition 22
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-.3 -.2 -.1 0 0 .2 .4 .6 .8 1 Cumulative distribution of Whites 95% confidence bands 90% confidence bands Segregation -.1 0 .1 .2 .3 0 .2 .4 .6 .8 1
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