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meaning, competence, self-determination, andimpact.Empowering leadership provides employees with a greater feeling of control over their work and a sense that they can make a difference in their organization’s effectiveness.Empowering leadership has been found to be positively related to job performance and creativity-relevant behaviours.Ethical leadershipEthical leadership involves the demonstration of normatively appropriate conduct through personalactions and interpersonal relationships, and the promotion of such conduct to followers through two-way communication, reinforcement, and decision-making.What do ethical leaders do?Ethical Leader Behaviours
They model what is deemed to be normatively appropriate behaviour (e.g.,honesty).They make ethics salient in theworkplace.They set ethical standards.They reward ethical behaviour.They discipline those who don’t followethical standards and punish unethical behaviour.Ethical leaders consider the ethical consequences of their decisions.They care about people and the broadersociety and seek to do the right thing personally and professionally.Authentic leadershipAuthentic leadership is a positive form of leadership that involves being true to oneself.Authentic leaders know and act upon their true values, beliefs, and strengtServant leadershipServant leadership is a form of leadership that involves going beyond one’s own self-interests and having a genuine concern to serve others and a motivation to lead.The focus of servant leadership is a concern forthe needs of followers and their growth and development.A servant leader is somebody who wants to servefirst and lead second.Characteristics of Servant LeadersThere are six characteristics of servantleaders:Empowering and developing people
AuthenticityInterpersonal acceptanceProviding directionStewardshipGender and LeadershipDo men and women adopt different leadership styles?WomenWomen have a tendency to be more participativeor democratic than men.Women leaders have been found to be more transformational than men leaders, and to also engage in more of the contingent reward behaviours of transactional leadership.MenMen leaders engaged in more management by exception and laissez-faire leadership which is apassive form of leadership that involves avoidance or absence of leadership and is negatively related to leader effectiveness.These findings attest to the ability of women to behighly effective leaders.So do men and women differ in leadershipeffectiveness?A review of 95 studies found that there are somedifferences but only in certain situations such aswhether an organization is male or female dominated.When various factors are taken into accountmen and women do not differ in perceivedleadership effectiveness.Women and LeadershipWomen hold very few top leadership positions inCanadian organizations.Women also hold a minority of senior leadership positionsin the United States and Europe.