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Ends child labor oSets 40 hours work week; 8 hour days; overtime Opponents to New Deal •Huey Long oLouisiana “kingfish” senator o“Share our wealth” program would confiscate fortunes over $1 million every family would get 5,000 every worker an annual income of 2,500 ensure higher education for qualified Pearl Harbor (December 7, 1941) •3 were planned by the Japanese o1 wave – hit battleships o2nd wave – hit planes o3rd wave – meant to hit fuel dumps and repair stations o***2,4000 Americans killed/1178 wounded •many ships sunk, but within 6 months most are back (shallow harbor makes it easier to retrieve ships •FDR gets war declaration •**Germany declares war on the US—they didn’t have to but Hitler chose to do so anyway. War at Home •massive propaganda campaign •US very unprepared (like every way) •Office of War Mobilization (basically the office ran the economy) oLed by James Byrnes •War Production Board oOrganized labor (tried to prevent strikes) – set goals of production •Women make up 35% of the workforce oAround 7 million; “Roise the Riveter” (also in military)
Blacks during Pearl Harbor •Blacks once again migrate north oDouble V – victory at home and victory abroad o700,000 blacks served oforced to endure segregation – separate units; many were given menial jobs but there were some exceptions •A Philip Randolph – March on Washington oWanted equal opportunites for A-A in war industries oA-A last hired, first fired Executive Order 8802 •June 1941 •No discrimination for workers based on race, creed, color, or national origin •Fair Employment Practices Commission-created to investigate discrimination Japanese Internment •Said to be wartime necessity but there as been history of anti-Japanese measures oGentlemens Agreement oCalifornia Alien Land Act oOzawa vs. US all of this played into anti-Japanese Hysteria post-Pearl Harbor Executive Order 9066 (after Japanese Internment) •Issued by FDR in February 1942
•Allowed the war department to evacuate Japanese-Americans from the war department to the interior •110,000 Japanese thrown in camps •forced to quickly sell their homes and possessions olost $400 million o2/3 of Japanese lived in Hawaii but were not interned oKorematsu v US – 1944 SC ruled 6-3 that internment was legal o1988 – Reagan apologized for internment survivors awarded $20,000 US WWII – Europe first strategy •