8. What are the major mechanisms the cellular organisms used to repair mutations or damages in DNA? Explain in detail how these repair systems work to repair DNA.
9. What is trinucleotide expansion? What are some of the medical effects of trinucleotide expansion?10. What is SOS response? What is the major difference between SOS response and the other DNA repair mechanisms used by bacteria?Chapter 17: Transposable Genetic Elements1. What are transposable genetic elements? Based on the mechanisms of transposition, transposable genetic elements are divided into three categories. Describe each of them.2. Can you describe the general features of a cut-and-paste transposable genetic element? What is the name and function of the enzyme that is encoded by this type of genetic elements?