• Functions of the Golgi apparatus include – Modification of the products of the rough ER – Manufacture of certain macromolecules. – Molecular identification tags have been added to the Golgi complex and acts like the Zip codes on mailing labels.
Plasma membrane expands by fusion of vesicles; proteins are secreted from cell Transport vesicle carries proteins to plasma membrane for secretion Lysosome available for fusion with another vesicle for digestion 4 5 6 Nuclear envelope is connected to rough ER, which is also continuous with smooth ER Nucleus Rough ER Smooth ER cis Golgi trans Golgi Membranes and proteins produced by the ER flow in the form of transport vesicles to the Golgi Nuclear envelop Golgi pinches off transport Vesicles and other vesicles that give rise to lysosomes and Vacuoles 1 3 2 Plasma membrane Review: Relationships among organelles of the endomembrane system
• Mitochondria and chloroplasts change energy from one form to another • Mitochondria: chemical energy conversion – Are the sites of cellular respiration • Chloroplasts: – Found only in plants and algae, are the sites of photosynthesis
• Mitochondria are enclosed by two membranes – A smooth outer membrane – An inner membrane folded into cristae Mitochondrion Intermembrane space Outer membrane Free ribosomes in the mitochondrial matrix Mitochondrial DNA Inner membrane Cristae Matrix 100 µm Mitochondria contain its own DNA. Mitochondrial DNA damage and ageing phenotype
Lysosomes: Digestive Compartments in animal cells • A lysosome – Is a membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes – Can digest all kinds of macromolecules
Peroxisomes. Bound by a single membrane; contains enzymes that transfer hydrogen from various substrates to oxygen producing H 2 O 2 as a by product.
• Autophagy: removes defective organelles and recycles cellular contents (b) Autophagy: lysosome breaking down damaged organelle Lysosome containing two damaged organelles 1 µ m Mitochondrion fragment Peroxisome fragment Lysosome fuses with vesicle containing damaged organelle Hydrolytic enzymes digest organelle components Vesicle containing damaged mitochondrion Digestion Lysosome Phagocytosis. Destroys foreign substances (virus, bacteria etc.)
• Chloroplasts: Capture of Light Energy • Chloroplasts (contain chlorophyll – Are found in leaves and other green organs of plants and in algae Chloroplast Chloroplast DNA Ribosomes Stroma Inner and outer membranes Thylakoid 1 µm Granum Chloroplast contains its own DNA. • Chloroplast structure includes – Thylakoids, membranous sacs – Stroma, the internal fluid
• The plasma membrane – Functions as a selective barrier – Allows sufficient passage of nutrients and waste Carbohydrate side chain Outside of cell Inside of cell Hydrophilic region Hydrophobic region Hydrophilic region Structure of the plasma membrane Phospholipid Proteins TEM of a plasma membrane. The plasma membrane, here in a red blood cell, appears as a pair of dark bands separated by a light band.
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