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- 1261 Palailogus(Emperor of Nicoea) Bizansı geri birleştiriyor fakat artık bir Osmanlı vassal’ı. - During 14th– 15thcentury Byzantine challenged militarily by East, economically byWest.- 1453 Fetih. Şehir yağmalanmıyor. Halkın malı korunuyor. Orthodox’u koruyor. Kendini Kaisef of Rome ilan ediyor Fatih Sultan Mehmet. Bizans kültürü Osmanlı aracılığı ile devam ediyor. Medieval Europe 500s – 1300s - Multiple post-roman kingdoms among which Merovingians were the most prominent. (400s – 750s)- Carolingians (750s – 900s)- Post Carolingian Fragmentation (900s – 1050s)- Birth and Rise of European Monarchies (1000s – 1450s)- Umayyad, Abbasid, Seljuk and Mongol in Near East (7thcentury to 13thcentury)- Roman Empiredivided into two empire- In east, Byzantine; called themselves roman, used greek language, were christian- In west, divided by barbaric tribes; frenks, ostrogots, visigoths—coming from northeast europe—also local people mix with new-comerThree legs of Europe in the Middle Ages- Germannes, Germanic Tribes: 3rdcentury onwards invasion which make Europe. Germanic speaking huge masses were coming to the Roman Empire. West and East division of the empire makes it vulnerable to the German invasions. - Romannes, Local Population: Represent the majority of people. Latin speaking Roman people, under the influence of Roman Culture, law etc. - Christianity: taught by Roman Church- Visigoths got the idea of kingship from Romans. Law is fusion of visigoths and romans. Courtship etc. everything is from romans.- Lombards did not change anything. They saw a great mass of everything, tried to rule it, yet did not change anything in Italy. - In the south of Italy, there was a BIG traditional system of Romans. Yet, in the north, England, France, Ireland, there were no roman system. No legal system, no law, not even proper army. Anglo-Saxons and the others, who are in the North, are the true creators of so-called European. - France is non-civilized, does not have a united law. Frankish Empire- First: Merovingian was the dynasty ruled over the France between 500s – 700s. War with Umayyad. - Second: Carolingian. The son of Pepen the Short wanted to rule, goes to pope. Charles the Great. He was crowned in the Rome by the Pope. Charlemagne. Politic crisis between west and east. Biggest Challenge to Byzantine. European Union. Charlemagne, first, was the ruler of the Frankish Kingdom. With conquests he expanded it into an empire that incorporated with much of Western and Central Europe.- Merovingian and Carolingian were conqueror. Their state treasury was dependent on conquests. They attack everywhere, and they gain money. - Yet, dynasties couldn’t create a united states.- Masters of war booty. - Roman administrative tradition: appointed counts (local lords) in return for army.