climatic hazard from a single big volcanic eruption is cooling, not warming. Explosive volcanoes are often large and steep, and may have huge glaciers. As heat melts the ice, and as melted rock moving into the volcano bulges the sides, huge landslides and mudflows happen. Tens of thousands of people have been killed in single mudflows. Well over 100,000 people live on the deposit from one old mudflow from Mt. Rainier (and those who know about that Osceola Flow really hope it doesn’t happen again!). A tsunami isa big wave, caused by an earthquake, landslide, meteorite impact, or volcanic eruption that displaces seawater. Waves can be 100 feet high or more, and do incredible damage. A big eruption underwater can push a lot of water out of the way, making a tsunami. Pyroclastic flows are major volcanic hazards, and can kill lots of people quickly. Imagine a few-hundred-degree mixture of pulverized rock, glass and poison gas chasing you at a few hundred miles per hour! Volcanoes do put out poison gases, such as hydrogen sulfide or carbon dioxide (a little is good; too much is deadly!). When rocks melt a little, fluid- and gas-making materials preferentially end up in the melt rather than in the remaining rock, so eruptions commonly come with gases, and some of those gases are of types or in concentrations that are not good for nearby humans.
Points Earned: 1/1 Correct Answer: D Your Response: D 14. The pictures show famous volcanoes, that we discussed in the class materials. Which statement is most accurate about these? A. Picture II shows a subduction-zone-type flood basalt, and picture I shows a hot-spot-type stratovolcano. B. Picture II shows a head-of-hot-spot flood basalt, and picture I shows a subduction-zone-type throws-small-pieces cinder cone. C. Picture II shows a head-of-hot-spot flood basalt, and picture I shows a throws-small-pieces cinder cone. D. Picture II shows a hot-spot-type shield volcano, and picture I shows a subduction-zone-type stratovolcano. E. Picture II shows a pile that a giant marmot named George dug up, and picture I shows a pile made by his good friend Herb. Picture I is the glorious stratovolcano Lassen Peak, in the Cascades of northern California, and picture II is the shield volcano of Mauna Loa, on the island of Hawaii. Points Earned: 1/1 Correct Answer: D Your Response: D 15. What is the “Ring of Fire”?
A. The circle of basaltic volcanoes around Death Valley. B. The circle of lava flows seen at night around a Hawaiian shield volcano. C. The melted outer core ringing the solid inner core of the planet. D. The ring of Coke drinkers around a Pepsi machine. E. The complex of volcanic arcs fed by subduction zones encircling the Pacific Ocean. The “Ring of Fire” is the circle of volcanic arcs fed by subduction zones with scraped-off muds and deep earthquakes around the Pacific Ocean. Points Earned: 1/1 Correct Answer: E Your Response: E Points Awarded 14 Points Missed 1 Percentage 93% 1 .
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 481 pages?
- Summer '14
- Earthquakes, rocks, Death Valley