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challenge the definition of “race?” (see Brodkin reading)○Article explains how a century ago, Jews and other Europeans weren’t consideredwhite and defined as nonwhite. It was only after WWII that Jews were includedamong the “white folk”○The postwar boom transformed U.S. class structure, one where the middle classexpanded to encompass most of the population, unlike before the war○Most Jews entered the middle class and broke down these “racial barriers” bymeans of education, from which they obtained skills for well paying jobs○This same kind of pattern occurred with other many EuroAmerican groupsfollowing WWII, but African Americans only became more segregated anddiscriminated against. Jews and other white Europeans benefited from the GI Billand FHA and VA mortgages as forms of affirmative action, whereas AfricanAmerican men were denied such benefits from federal programming.
○They were integrated into “whites” Blacks did not receive much of theaffirmative action advantages○Supports the definition of race because they began to slowly fit the sociallyconstructed definition. Theories of nurture and culture began to replace theories ofnature and biology. Instead of dirty and dangerous race who would destroy U.Sdemocracy, immigrants became ethnic group whose children were integrated■Indicates that the meaning of race is constantly changing●What is prejudice? What is stereotyping? What is discrimination? What is thedifference between individual and institutionalized discrimination? (see chapter 8,Brodkin reading)○Prejudice= belief about an individual or group that is subject to change on thebasis of evidence○Stereotyping= generalizing a set of characteristics to all members of a group○Discrimination= unequal treatment of individuals on the basis of theirmembership in a group○Individual discrimination= overt and intentional unequal treatment, often basedon prejudiced beliefs○Institutionalized racism= unequal treatment that has become a part of the routineoperation of major social institutions (businesses, schools, government, hospitals)●Be able to differentiate between “assigned” vs. “asserted” and “thick” vs. “thin”identities. (see Cornell and Hartmann)○thick identity: organizes a great deal of social life and both individual andcollective action■Ex: In south Africa, race was comprehensive aspect of social life.Everyone was assigned a racial category, and it told who you could marry,how you were treated.○thin identity: organizes little of social life and action■Ex: American Italians who like to follow traditions but it does notdominate their lives○thickness/ thinness can change over time○Assignmentandassertionrooted in perceptions of “us”’ versus “them,” who“belongs” and who “does not”■Assigned identity: ascribed by outsiders or by circumstances■Asserted Identity: claimed by ethnic or racial groups■