As adults: tend to protect themselves by becoming the less-committed partner in their relationshipsoGood Part:If an insecurely attached person can get into a relationship with a securely attached partner, these vulnerabilities in maintain stable partnership can be overcomeMotivation to Love:oOur motivation to love often start with biologyoBut they are shaped and directed by:Early experiences with parentsOur culture and historical eraGender RolesEven economic dependency or self-sufficiencyoBIOLOGY OF LOVEAll human beings have an innate need for attachment and love (it’s ‘wired’ in)Psychologists distinguish between:Passionate (romantic) LoveoA whirlwind of intense emotions and sexual passionCompanionate LoveoCharacterized by affection and trustoLove as Motivational SystemsHelen Fisher, research psychologist that focuses on 3 different motivational systems we lump together as ‘love’Three separate, often independent, motivational systems that increase our reproductive success:Lust (sexual motivation)Romantic Attraction (motivation to find the best mate and settle down with them)Commitment (motivation to stay together long enough to raise offspring)Chemicals involved… Love, Hormones, and NTsoPituitary GlandPosterior parts receive connections from hypothalamusThere are 2 nuclei in the hypothalamus (nucleus is a cluster of cell bodies)Hypothalamus produces ADH and oxytocinoVarious brain chemicals and hormones are associated with bonding and trust:Vasopressin (ADH)OxytocinBoth of these hormones exist in both genders, but ADH is more important in males and oxytocin in female bonding
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oThe rushes of pleasure and reward associated with sexual behaviour and romantic passion are created by:EndorphinsDopamineReward System Involved (activated by drugs and physical contact)oResearchers believe that the neurological origins of passionate love being in the baby’s attachments to its motherThe Biology of DesireoHuman sexuality is not simply a matter of “doing what comes naturally”oWhat is “natural” for one person or culture may not be so natural for othersoMargaret MeadoSexuality is influenced by a variety of factorsBiologicalPsychological and CulturaloHormones:Testosterone promotes sexual desire in both men and women (but estrogens are also important in women)However, hormones do not cause sexual behaviour in a simple, direct wayEx: more testosterone does not mean there is a high sex driveWhether men and women are different in some biologically based sex drives continues on to be debatedBiological factors versus gender rolesoGender Differences in Sexuality:A common view of sexuality is that male sexuality is more biologically influenced than is women’s whereas female sexuality is more governed by circumstances, relationships, and cultural normsIs this true?
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