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Just as much as similar benefit agent neutrality

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just as much as similar benefit Agent-neutrality: whether some consequences are better than others does not depend on whether the consequences are evaluated from the perspective of the agent (as opposed to an observer) Mill’s Argument (Sober) 1) Seeing something proves that it is visible. 2) Hence, desiring something proves that it is desirable. 3) The only thing that each person ultimately desires is his or her own happiness. 4) The only thing that is ultimately desirable for a person is his or her own happiness. Therefore, C. Each person should perform those actions that promote the greatest possible happiness. Problems with Happiness The Experience Machine Higher and Lower Pleasures (satisfied fool vs. dissatisfied Socrates) Preference Utilitarianism
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An act is moral if and only if it maximizes the degree to which people get their preferences satisfied. This version avoids the Experience machines problem. Problems for Preference Utilitarianism Impossible to compare the intensity of preferences The Lonesome Stranger Case Act vs. Rule Utilitarianism An action should be performed only if it performs the greatest happiness Do we mean: 1) An individual action? (Act) 2) A kind of action? (Rule) The Lonesome stranger case: - R1: Punish the innocent when it is convenient. - R2: Never punish the innocent. R2 wins. But: R3: Don’t punish the innocent unless doing so will maximize utility. Pages 411 – 426: Utilitarianism is an ethical theory whose central idea is “the greatest good for the greatest number”
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