distance between the teacher and the learner was important. When the teachers were in the same room as the learner, only 40 percent obeyed fully. When the teachers were face-to-face with the learner and were required to force the learner’s hand down on a simulated “shock plate,” only 30 percent obeyed. Distance from the authority (the experimenter Milgram) also had an effect. When the experimenter gave the order over the phone, only 22 percent of the teachers obeyed. Milgram found that group support can greatly reduce destructive obedience. When real subject “teachers” saw two other “teachers” (both actors) resist orders and walk out of the experiment, only 10 percent continued to obey. Thus, a personal assertion of courage or moral fortitude by one or two members of a group may free others to disobey misguided or unjust authority. Add Question Here Question 131 Essay 0 points Modify Remove Question Describe the similarities and the differences between brainwashing and cult conversions. Answer Answer will include that both brainwashing and cult conversion are forced attitude change, and both involve the use of isolation. Differences will include a discussion of how each is accomplished. For example, brainwashing requires a captive audience and has three phases: (1) unfreezing of old beliefs using physical and psychological abuse; (2) change occurring at the breaking point; and (3) refreezing or solidifying through a mixture of fear, hope, and pressures to conform. Cult conversion involves recruiting potential converts who are in a mild depression or feeling alienated from family and friends; then using “love bombing” and rituals; isolation from family; and the use of the “foot-in-the-door” effect to encourage small commitments with larger commitments required later. In addition, brainwashing is not permanent once the captive is out from under their oppressors, while cult conversion creates such dependency, commitment, and guilt that it is difficult to get people out of a cult. In addition, all cults have a charismatic leader, whom the converts follow without question. This leader, however, victimizes his or her followers. Add Question Here Question 132 Essay 0 points Modify Remove Question Describe a situation in which you were non-assertive. Contrast an aggressive and an assertive response to the same situation in which you were non-assertive, and then describe some general strategies for promoting assertiveness. Answer Answers regarding the non-assertive situations will vary but will include a clear distinction among non-assertive, aggressive, and assertive responses to the situation as presented in Table 16.2. For example, non-assertive persons are self-denying, inhibited, hurt, and anxious; lets others make choices for them; and do not achieve their goals. The receivers of the non- assertive behavior may feel sympathy, guilt, or contempt for the actor and achieve their goals at the actor’s expense.
- Spring '12
- Psychology, Cult