Pharmacology I Study Guide-2.docx

Medulla emetic zone and chemoreceptor trigger zone

This preview shows page 18 - 20 out of 21 pages.

medulla (emetic zone and chemoreceptor trigger zone) Maintaining homeostasis in GI tract overstimulation can result in constipation (underactivity) or diarrhea (overactivity) Chapter 57: Drugs Affecting GI Secretions -decrease in GI secretory activity -block the action of GI secretions -form protective coverings on the GI lining to prevent erosion from GI secretions -replace missing GI enzymes that the GI tract and organs can no longer produce PUD erosions in the lining of the stomach and adjacent areas of the GI tract Possible cause- helicobacter pylori bacteria; stress, NSAIDS Drugs used to treat ulcers Histamine 2 Antagonists : block the release of HCl acid in response to gastrin; selectively block H2 receptors located on parietal cells Adverse effects: GI effects, dizziness, confusion Interactions: Warfarin, beta blockers, theophylline Rantidine (Zantac) (-ine) Antacids : neutralize stomach acid by direct chemical reaction
Image of page 18

Subscribe to view the full document.

Adverse effects: rebound acid, alkalosis, constipation, D, hypercalcemia Sodium bicarb Magnesium salts Calcium salts Proton Pump Inhibitors : suppress the secretion of HCl acid in the lumen of the stomach by inhibiting the hydrogen-potassium adenosine triphosphatase system in gastric parietal cells Adverse effects: GI upset, dizziness, HA, vertigo, rash Omeprazole GI Protectant/ Antipeptic agents: coat any injured area in the stomach to prevent further injury from acid; occurs at duodenal ulcer sites Adverse effects: constipation, ND, dry mouth, rash Sucralfate Prostaglandins : used to protect the stomach lining by inhibiting gastric acid secretion and increases bicarb and mucus production in the stomach Adverse effects: NDV, abd pain, flatulence, cramping, Misoprostol also abortifactant Digestive enzymes : saliva substitute: contains electrolytes to act as a thickening agent in dry mouth conditions; replacement enzymes that help digestion and absorption of fats, proteins, and carbs Adverse effects: abnormal lytes, GI irritation, ND, abd cramping Chapter 58: Drugs Affecting GI Motility -speed up or improve movement of intestinal contents when slow or sluggish movement occurs -increase the tone of the GI tract and stimulate motility -decrease movement along the tract when rapid movement decreases the time for absorption of nutrients (diarrhea) Laxatives : work by direct chemical stimulation of the GI tract, production of bulk or increased fluid in the lumen, lubrication of intestinal bolus to promote passage Adverse effects: ND, abd cramping, HA, weakness, sweating, palps, flushing Chemical stimulants chemically irrigate the GI tract lining - Cascara -Senna * -Castor oil -Bisacodyl (Dulcolax) * Bulk stimulants cause the fecal matter to increase in bulk (need enough fluids for this) -Magnesium sulfate -Magnesium citrate -Polycarbophil -Psyllium
Image of page 19
Lubricants aid in smoother movement of intestinal contents -Docusate- detergent action on intestinal bolus, making softer stool -Glycerin- hyperosmolar laxative used to gently evacuate the rectum without systemic effects -Mineral oil- forms slippery coat on contents
Image of page 20
You've reached the end of this preview.
  • Spring '16
  • Loren Martin
  • Adrenergic receptor

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern