Factors that increase fire risks and collapse

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FACTORS THAT INCREASE FIRE RISKS AND COLLAPSE Construction, Demolition, and Renovations Drywall not yet in place Exposed wood framing Lack of barriers-doors, windows, etc.
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FACTORS THAT INCREASE FIRE RISKS AND COLLAPSE Open stairwells More at risk for to Arson In buildings, suppression systems not yet working Blocked entrances/exits Construction materials and equipment in way
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National Fire Protection Association NFPA-13, Commercial Fire Sprinkler Design Standards NFPA-13R, Residential Fire Sprinkler Design Standards NFPA-13D, Dwelling Fire Sprinkler Design Standards (One- and Two-family)
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Means of Egress
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Exits Exits should be located as far apart from one another as possible so that if one is blocked in an emergency, other(s) can still be reached. Code states when two or more exits are required, they must be placed distance apart equal to and not less than one-half the length of the longest diagonal dimension within the building or area to be served, as measured in a straight line between the exits. This is known as the “Half-diagonal Rule”
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Exits
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Exits Codes limit length of travel distance from within single space to exit-access corridor. This is defined as maximum distance Cannot exceed 200 feet in unsprinklered buildings and 250 feet in sprinklered buildings
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Exit Distances
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Travel Distance Limits Type of Occupancy Travel Distance Limit Unsprinklered (ft) Travel Distance Limit Sprinklered (ft) Industrial - General 200 250 Industrial-High Hazard 0 75 Storage – Ord Hazard 200 400 Storage – High Hazard 75 100 * NFPA 101
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Exits Allow rooms to have single exit through adjoining or intervening room, provided it affords direct and unobstructed means of travel to exit corridor or other exit Total stipulated maximum travel distances cannot be exceeded Exiting is not permitted through kitchens, storerooms, rest rooms, closets, or spaces used for similar purposes. Codes normally categorize foyers, lobbies, and reception rooms constructed as required for corridors with one- hour-rated wall as intervening rooms, allowing them to be used for exit purposes
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Exits Corridor construction must be of 1-hour fire- resistive construction when serving occupant load of 10 or more in R-1 and I occupancies and when serving occupant load of 30 or more in other occupancies 1-hour-rated corridors must extend through ceiling to rated floor or roof above unless ceiling of entire story is 1-hour-rated Where ducts penetrate fire-rated corridor, fire dampers must close automatically upon detection of heat or smoke to restrict flame passage
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Exit Stairs Exit stairs should be wide enough to allow two people to descend side by side with no sudden decrease in width along path of travel Stairs must adhere to specific code and accessibility requirements and be constructed in manner and using materials consistent with construction type of the building. New stairs are required to have minimum width of 44 inches, 11-inch tread depth, and maximum riser height of 7 inches
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