Biology_2007_Virtual_Lab_Answer_Key-1

Arthropods have developed various structural

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• Arthropods have developed various structural adaptations that contribute to their ability to escape or avoid predators. These include small size, hard exoskeleton, and jointed appendages. • Arthropods can reproduce quickly. • Arthropods can adapt to terrestrial and aquatic environments. • Arthropods have developed adaptations for obtaining and digesting an extremely wide variety of foods. • Arthropods have various means (breathing structures) for obtaining oxygen. 3. What are some advantages and disadvantages of having an exoskeleton? Exoskeletons provide protection for the animal and a strong surface for muscle attachment. However, exoskeletons do not grow with the animal and must be periodically molted, leaving the animal vulnerable to predators for a short period. 4. Which of the five classes of arthropods is the most diverse? Explain. Insects are the most diverse and successful group of arthropods. Explanations will depend on students’ choices but should include facts similar to the following: • Insects have developed structural adaptations that contribute to their ability to escape or avoid predators. These include small size and wings. • Insects can swim. • Most insects can move quickly. • Many insects can camouflage themselves from predators. • Insects possess various types of mouthparts for obtaining nutrients. 5. For each of the following characteristics, indicate whether the trait is common to Phylum Arthropoda or specific to certain classes of arthropods: wings, chewing mouthparts, jointed appendages, number of legs, segmented bodies, type of respiratory structure, exoskeleton. The following traits are common to Phylum Arthropoda: jointed appendages, segmented bodies, and exoskeletons. The remaining traits (wings, chewing mouthparts, number of legs, and type of respiratory structure) are specific to certain classes of arthropods. Lab 23: Dinosaur Dig Analysis The answers are intended only as samples. Answers also depend on how students completed the lab and on the random data generated by the computer. 1. Describe the steps you took to estimate the age of one of the fossils. Answers will vary. Students describe how they determined the ages of the rocks below and above the sedimentary rock layer in which the fossil was found in order to estimate the age of the fossil.
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2. Describe the steps you took to identify one of the dinosaurs from the fossil. Answers will vary. Students describe how they compared the fossil and the radiometric dating data to the descriptions in the dinosaur guide to identify the dinosaur from which the fossil came. 3. How could you determine that two species of dinosaurs lived in the same time period? Finding fossils of the two species of dinosaurs that can be dated to the same geologic time period would provide the evidence. Sometimes groups of fossils from different dinosaurs are found together, thereby providing evidence that the different dinosaur species lived in the same time period.
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