The stimulus change following the occurrence of

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Behavior Modification: Principles and Procedures
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Chapter Q / Exercise 10
Behavior Modification: Principles and Procedures
Miltenberger
Expert Verified
-The stimulus change following the occurrence of target behavior is not immediate. 4. Unlike assessments for identifying positive reinforcers, assessments for negative reinforcers must place equal emphasis on _______________ as well as the consequence events for target behavior. -The EO or antecedent event 5. The key difference between an escape contingency and an avoidance contingency is: -In an escape contingency the EO is present prior to the occurrence of the target behavior, while in an avoidance contingency, the EO is not present prior to the occurrence of the target behavior. 6. Which of the following is an example of free-operant avoidance? - Jackie crosses the street when she sees Donna come around the corner on the next block so that she doesn’t have to talk to her. - Lavonda puts on a bicycle helmet when she rides her bike so she doesn’t hurt her head in the event that she falls off - Nathaniel puts down the hurricane shutters of his Florida home when he hears that a storm is approaching so that his windows do not get broken 7.Which of the following behaviors could be maintained by negative reinforcement? - Completing school work - Cleaning a bathroom - Tantrums 8.An unconditioned negative reinforcer: - Is one that strengthens behavior in the absence of prior learning - Can be thought of as inherited negative reinforcer 9. The textbook describes a study by Ahearn and colleagues (1996), in which negative reinforcement was used to increase food acceptance in children. In this example, during baseline, bite acceptances produced access to toys and bite refusals produced removal of the spoon (negative reinforcement). During the intervention, bite refusals no longer
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Behavior Modification: Principles and Procedures
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Chapter Q / Exercise 10
Behavior Modification: Principles and Procedures
Miltenberger
Expert Verified
produced removal of the spoon. Instead, the spoon was only removed if a bite was accepted. As soon as a bite was accepted and every time a bite was accepted, the spoon was briefly removed. Which factors that are important to consider for effectively changing behavior with negative reinforcement are illustrated in this example? - The stimulus change following the occurrence of the target behavior was immediate - The difference in stimulation prior to and after the response occurred was large - The occurrence of the target response consistently produced escape - Reinforcement was unavailable for competing responses 10. The study by Rodgers and Iwata (1991) that analyzed the effects of positive reinforcement, error correction procedures, and an avoidance procedure demonstrated that: -Error correction procedures may produce learning, at least in part, due to an avoidance contingency. 11. Ethical concerns about the use of negative reinforcement stem from: -Second and third choices. 12. The potential negative side effects (e.g., crying, running away) of negative reinforcement are similar to the side effects associated with: - Punishment Chapter 13 Quiz

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