Causes of Technological Change according to White•Rationality of Europeans, closely tied to religion, primarily, “Western Christianity”.•“Progressive” in the sense that it separated man from nature so that it gave rise to the exploitation of land, and thus leading to commerce and capitalism.◦Versus other religious, deemed inferior due to not being able to separate man fromnature.◦Inferior mindset, thus falling commercially and technologically .◦In reality, medieval Christianity did not see man as completely separate from nature. That mindset of commercializing nature and its separation from man has nothing to do with religion.Technology in China/ “The China Formula”•Chinese technology was “on par” with Medieval European technology. This fact throws off those arguments who believe that the European superiority was due to their technology so counterarguments are given:•Why did China not have their own “miracle” in the sense where they become “modernized” with respect to Europe as well? •This suggests that countries like India and Middle East etc. were subpar and cannot even be considered for the equivalent question.•Whatever happened, technologically, in China, IT STOPPED.•Something in Chinese CULTURE caused stagnation. An example is the empire the Chinese had, and how they were not truly free (telescoping history), therefore not rational, and preventing progress.•The important question is how and why the technological advances happened, rather than how and why they stopped.Society•Criticizing the social categories (State, church, class, and the family) on which Europe is claimed to be superior, which caused Europeans to progress.State•European miracle historians argue that present day, modern European nation-state (which is unique to the rest of the world, NOW) appeared very early in European history, which played a role in modernization and/or it is a state form created naturally and rationally by freedom-loving Europeans in the Middle Ages.Arguments made in “The European Miracle” by Eric L. Jones for this ideal.•Freedom loving Europeans had the advantage of a number of fertile core areas which led to pattern of medium-sized states◦Versus “imperial” pattern of Asian societies0Interfered with development of economy◦Europe saved from this because of geography◦This is not true because same sized units are found in many other types of the world, not necessarily due to geography.