C) Differences from Critical Race TheoryAcademic Influences:Critical Race Theory draws on social theory, but it is rooted in legal scholarship and activism. The theory emerged in the field of law. In contrast, Critical Theories of Race and Racism are rooted in the social sciences, including sociology. Both have a social influence, however, critical theories of race and racism are more strongly influenced by sociology in comparison to Critical Race Theory.Analytical Focus:As it emerged in the legal field, Critical Race Theory has a narrow focus – it addresses the implications of race and racism in relation to the legal system in the United States. On the other hand, Critical Theories of Race and Racism have a broader focus. They address race and racism in relation to various structures and institutions, in the United States, other countries, and even globally. The differences in theory stem from the differences academic influence and analytical focuses: Cutting-Edge Issues and Ideas:Being rooted in the social sciences, Critical Theories of Race and Racism have utilized cutting-edge issues and ideas in social theory. These issues and ideas include questions about how structure-agency (the structure of society and the action of individuals), political economy, and globalization have a bearing on race and racism. Eg. How do structural conditions (political, economic, and ideological factors) (how the structural arrangements of society) affect the type or extent of racism at the level of individual action (or agency)?Classical and Contemporary Ideas:Critical Theories of Race and Racism are influenced by and open to a variety of classical and contemporary ideas. Some theorists adopt a political economy approach to race, one that is heavily indebted to Marx and adopts historical materialism. E.g. Understanding how the historical development of the capitalist economy has affected racism.D) The Current State of Critical Theories of Race and Racism– These theories only started to emerge in the 1990s so they have not been around for a long time; they are still in their infancy. Further, there is a plurality of theories. The development of these theories are are shaped by two things:1.Historical Body of Theory (E.g. Marx, Du Bois)2.Various Relevant Theoretical Perspectives – (E.g. Feminist Theory [through intersectionality], Neo-Gramscian Theory). Eg. Neo-Gramscian Theory: Gramsci discussed the hegemony of a dominant group over a series of subordinate groups. When Gramsci developed his ideas of hegemony, he was thinking about the capitalist class, the working class, and its allies. A number of theorists interested in race and racism turn to hegemony; they notice that Gramsci’s idea about hegemony is flexible enough to talk about different things. For instance, hegemony can be used to understand the consensual leadership of whites against a series of subordinated of minority groups because whites have made some concessions to the minority groups to minimize some conflict. Whites work in society through hegemony.